Home PARASITOLOGY AND ENTOMOLOGY PROJECT TOPICS AND MATERIALS A SURVEY OF MALARIA VECTORS AND PARASITES IN AGUOWA COMMUNITY, ENUGU – EAST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, ENUGU STATE, SOUTH EASTERN NIGERIA

A SURVEY OF MALARIA VECTORS AND PARASITES IN AGUOWA COMMUNITY, ENUGU – EAST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, ENUGU STATE, SOUTH EASTERN NIGERIA

0

File Type: DOC & PDF

  • File Size: [859 KB]
  • Length of Work: [74] Pages
  •  

    ABSTRACT

    The study set out to determine the presence of mosquito vectors of malaria,
    prevalent Plasmodium species as well as some blood parameters related to
    malaria pathology in some inhabitants of Aguowa community of Enugu East
    Local Government Area of Enugu State, South-Eastern Nigeria. Adult mosquitoes
    were sampled indoors using the indoor Pyrethrum Knockdown Collection (PKC)
    method. Mosquito breeding sites were sampled for larvae. Venous blood samples
    were collected by thumb prick using blood lancet, for the identification of the
    various malaria parasites, the haemoglobin level and the Packed Cell Volume. A
    total of 273 out of the 945 pupils of the only primary school in the area were
    used for the study. The larvae of three species of mosquitoes were identified as
    Aedes aegypti (9.3%), Aedes albopictus (13.2%) and Culex quinquefasciatus
    (77.5%) Anopheles gambiae (1.1%), Aedes aegypti (4.6%) and Culex
    quinquefasciatus (94.5%) were sampled indoors using the Pyrethrum
    Knockdown Collection method. The prevalence of the various species of malaria
    parasites were recorded as follows: Plasmodium falciparum (50.6%), P.ovale
    (41.2%) and P.malariae (1.5%). The overall prevalence of malaria parasitaemia
    in the community stood at 87.2%, while the prevalence with respect to sex were
    93.7% for males and 82.7% for females. The prevalence for the various age
    groups were 4-6 years (88.7%), 7-9 years (93.3%), 10-12 years (89.6%) and
    13-16 years (60.0%). The mean haemoglobin level of 10.2g/dl and Packed Cell
    Volume (PCV) of 31.0% were below the normal range of values. With a
    prevalence value of about 87.2%, it appears that malaria is a serious public
    health issue in Aguowa. There is need therefore to intensify efforts that will lead
    to reduction in the presence of malaria vectors, and control of the parasite in
    Aguowa community.

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Title page .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ii
    Certification page .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. iii
    Dedication .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. iv
    Acknowledgements .. .. .. .. .. .. .. v
    Abstract .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. vii
    List of figures .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. viii
    List of tables .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ix
    Table of contents .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. x

    CHAPTER ONE
    Introduction .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 1

    CHAPTER TWO
    Literature review .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 6

    CHAPTER THREE
    Materials and methods .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 28

    CHAPTER FOUR
    Results .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 35

    CHAPTER FIVE Discussion .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 47
    Conclusion and Recommendations .. .. .. .. .. .. 54
    References .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 56
    Appendix .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 63

    CHAPTER ONE

    INTRODUCTION
    Malaria is an internationally devastating disease and continues to be one
    of the most devastating infectious diseases of our time, rivaling Human
    Immunodeficiency Virus/ Acquired Immune Deficiency Disease Syndrome
    (HIV/AIDS) and Tuberculosis as killer diseases in tropical and subtropical
    regions (WHO, 2005) Figure 1. Around 3.2 billion people are at risk of malarial
    attack each year, with around 500 million people proceeding to clinical disease
    and 2-3 million deaths occurring (Snow et al, 2005). Over 90% of these deaths
    occur in sub-Saharan Africa (WHO, 2005). The burden of morbidity and
    mortality is biased towards young children, not yet immuned to clinical
    symptoms (Snow et al, 2005) and pregnant women, where parasites are
    sequestered in the placenta (Rowe and Keys, 2004).
    In Africa, Anopheles gambiae and An. melas breeding in sunlit habitats
    and An. funestus in shades and An. phorensis in Upper Egypt and Sudan are
    responsible for the transmission of malaria parasite. In Nigeria, Anopheles
    gambiae complex, An. funestus and An. arabiensis have been incriminated for
    malaria transmission with major impact (Oguoma and Ikpeze, 2008) and
    Ekanem (1991).
    The parasites that cause malarial disease are protozoan organisms that
    also infect many animal species including primates, lizards and birds. Four
    Plasmodium species are responsible for human malaria: Plasmodium falciparum;
    P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae. Plasmodium falciparum is the most virulent
    parasite, and is responsible for the majority of malaria – related mortality. It is
    found in all malaria endemic regions of the world, and is the most common
    human malaria parasite in Africa (WHO, 2005). Plasmodium vivax is rarely
    2
    found in Africa, but it is the most common species outside Africa (Mendis et al,
    2001; Carter and Mendis, 2002).
    Anaemia is a fairly common problem encountered in malaria and it poses
    special problems in pregnancy and in children. The easiest measures of anaemia
    are the haemoglobin and Packed Cell Volume levels. The haematological
    parameters of the study community was assessed using haemoglobin and
    Packed Cell Volume.
    Aguowa community is a slum with about 5000 inhabitants within Trans
    Ekulu area of Enugu Metropolis, Enugu-East Local Government Area of South
    Eastern Nigeria. It is inhabited by mostly farmers, artisans, students, traders
    and civil servants. There are no pipe borne water, health, facilities, schools,
    tarred roads, with poor sanitary conditions.

    1.1 THE OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
    The main objective of the study is to sample mosquito vectors of malaria,
    determine the prevalent plasmodium species in humans, as well as blood
    parameters related to malaria pathology in some inhabitants of Aguowa
    community.

    1.2 THE SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES
    A. Entomological
    i) Larval survey of Anopheles mosquitoes.
    ii) Indoor survey of adult Anopheles mosquitoes using the Pyrethrum
    Knockdown Collection (PKC) method.
    iii) Dissection of adult Anopheles mosquitoes collected indoors to
    demonstrate the presence of sporozoites in the salivary glands or
    gametocytes in the stomach.
    3
    B. Parasitological
    i) To determine the prevalence of infecting Plasmodium species in
    the human community, through examination of blood films using
    both thick and thin smears
    C. Haematology
    i) To estimate the Haemoglobin (Hb) level
    ii) To determine the packed cell volume (PCV) of the inhabitants of
    Aguowa community

    1.3 EXPECTATIONS OF THE STUDY
    This study, if successfully completed is expected to provide information
    and data on:
    i) The malaria vectors’ composition in the Aguowa Community
    ii) The prevalence of the various species of malaria parasites in some
    inhabitants of Aguowa community.
    iii) The level of haemoglobin and the packed cell volume in the
    inhabitants of the community.

    GET THE FULL WORK

    Reply to Frank...
    WhatsApp Us!
    Hello! My name is Frank Umeadi. I am online and ready to help you via WhatsApp chat. Let me know if you need my assistance on A SURVEY OF MALARIA VECTORS AND PARASITES IN AGUOWA COMMUNITY, ENUGU – EAST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, ENUGU STATE, SOUTH EASTERN NIGERIA.