“Biometrics” means “life measurement” but the term is usually associated with the use of unique physiological characteristics to identify an individual. The application which most people associate with biometrics is security. However, biometrics identification has eventually a much broader relevance as computer interface becomes more natural. Knowing the person with whom you are conversing is an important part of human interaction and one expects computers of the future to have the same capabilities.
A number of biometric traits have been developed and are used to authenticate the person’s identity. The idea is to use the special characteristics of a person to identify him. By using special characteristics we mean the using the features such as face, iris, fingerprint, signature etc. The method of identification based on biometric characteristics is preferred over traditional passwords and PIN based methods for various reasons such as: The person to be identified is required to be physically present at the time-of-identification. Identification based on biometric techniques obviates the need to remember a password or carry a token. A biometric system is essentially a pattern recognition system which makes a personal identification by determining the authenticity of a specific physiological or behavioral characteristic possessed by the user.
Table of Contents
CERTIFICATION PAGE. 2
CHAPTER ONE. 8
1.0 INTRODUCTION. 8
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY. 8
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM.. 9
1.3 PURPOSE OF STUDY. 10
1.4 IMPORTANCE OF STUDY. 10
2.0 LITERETURE REVIEW.. 13
2.1 14th Century China. 13
2.2 Late 19th Century: Fingerprinting Begins. 14
2.3 Late 20th Century: Automated Biometric Techniques. 14
CHAPTER THREE. 17
3.0 BIOMETRICS RECOGNITION. 17
3.1 BACKGROUND CONCEPTS. 19
4.0 PERFORMANCE OF BIOMETRIC. 23
4.2 HOW DOES BIOMETRICS TECHNOLOGY WORK. 25
4.3 BENEFITS OF BIOMETRIC TECHNOLOGY. 26
CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION. 27
5.1 LIMITATION OF STUDY. 27
5.2 SUGGESTION FOR FURTHER RESEARCH. 28
5.3 REFERENCES. 29
Biometry, or biometrics, is the application of statistical analysis to biological data. In the 21st century, it seems almost intuitive to think of our bodies as natural identification systems for our unique selves. In fact, the idea that our bodies, eyes, faces and fingers might give us (and criminals and terrorists) away developed over time, through the work of many people.
Biometrics (or biometric authentication) consists of methods for uniquely recognizing humans based upon one or more intrinsic physical or behavioral traits. In computer science, in particular, biometrics is used as a form of identity access management and access control. It is also used to identify individuals in groups that are under surveillance.
Biometric characteristics can be divided in two main classes:
- Physiological are related to the shape of the body. Examples include, but are not limited to fingerprint, face recognition, DNA, Palm print, hand geometry, iris recognition, which has largely replaced retina, and odour/scent.
- Behavioral are related to the behavior of a person. Examples include, but are not limited to typing rhythm, gait, and voice. Some researchers have coined the term behaviometrics for this class of biometrics.
Strictly speaking, voice is also a physiological trait because every person has a different vocal tract, but voice recognition is mainly based on the study of the way a person speaks, commonly classified as behavioral.
Biometrics is the technology that is used to uniquely identify a specific human being. It is primarily used to provide security for personal or business assets. A biometrics system must first store a person’s biometric data. Then, when someone tries to access a personal or business system, the stored biometric data is compared to the data of the person currently accessing the system. If the data matches up, the person can have access to the protected information.
A strong biometrics system alleviates weaknesses found in most protective systems. For example, most people who use a password-protected system create weak passwords. The passwords can often be guessed, which can allow thieves access to sensitive information or financial assets. It also removes the problems associated with lost key cards and shared passwords. Biometrics is specific to one person alone and cannot be stolen, guessed, lost or shared with another person.
A biometrics system can be physiological or behavioral. If it is physiological, then it measures a specific area of the human body. For example, one of the most basic and oldest ways to identify a person is through fingerprinting. Devices that read fingerprints are rather inexpensive and can be added to computers, door locks, external hard drives, and credit cards.
Other physiological biometrics include a scan of the human hand, an iris scan and a facial recognition scan. Although the hand scan does not collect the data from fingerprints, it does measure the angles of the fingers, the alignment of the 27 bones in the hand, the pattern of the hand veins, and the location of other tissues, muscles and tendons in the hand. The iris scan measures the set of muscles that control the dilation of the pupils. The facial recognition scan measures the features of the face, such as the distance between the eyes and the ears and the shape of the nose and the mouth.
A behavioral biometrics system looks at how a particular person does a specific activity. Some of the most common systems using behavioral biometrics include data collected from a person’s handwriting, the way they type on a keyboard, the sound of their voice, and their gait. The data collected from a handwriting sample considers the image itself, the motion of the pen, and the pressure of the pen. When looking at keystrokes, the rhythm, muscle tone, and timing are all considered. Sound and pattern are both considered when voice and gait information is collected for a biometrics system.
1.5 DEFINITION OF TERMS
BIOMETRICS: Biometrics is the technology that is used to uniquely identify a specific human being.
AUTHENTICATION: Authentication is the act of confirming the truth of an attribute of a datum or entity. This might involve confirming the identity of a person, tracing the origins of an artifact, ensuring that a product is what its packaging and labeling claims to be, or assuring that a computer program is a trusted one.
1.6 ASSUMPTION OF STUDY
A good biometrics system will only consider unique and permanent characteristics of a person. “Permanent” characteristics will only change very slowly, if at all, over time. For example, an adult’s hand should look basically the same over a five year period of time, barring an exceptional occurrence, such as an accident or surgery. Biometrics is more accurate and reliable than normal identification, making it one of the best ways to protect important information and assets.
DISCLAIMER: All project works, files and documents posted on this website, UniProjectTopics.com are the property/copyright of their respective owners. They are for research reference/guidance purposes only and some of the works may be crowd-sourced. Please don’t submit someone’s work as your own to avoid plagiarism and its consequences. Use it as a reference/citation/guidance purpose only and not copy the work word for word (verbatim). The paper should be used as a guide or framework for your own paper. The contents of this paper should be able to help you in generating new ideas and thoughts for your own study. UniProjectTopics.com is a repository of research works where works are uploaded for research guidance. Our aim of providing this work is to help you eradicate the stress of going from one school library to another in search of research materials. This is a legal service because all tertiary institutions permit their students to read previous works, projects, books, articles, journals or papers while developing their own works. This is where the need for literature review comes in. “What a good artist understands is that nothing comes from nowhere. All creative work builds on what came before. Nothing is completely original.” - Austin Kleon. The paid subscription on UniProjectTopics.com is a means by which the website is maintained to support Open Education. If you see your work posted here by any means, and you want it to be removed/credited, please contact us with the web address link to the work. We will reply to and honour every request. Please notice it may take up to 24 – 48 hours to process your request.