There is a general feeling of insecurity among the population in Borno state. The terrorizing effect of the activities of the fundamentalist sect, Boko Haram on the socio-economic development of Maiduguri in Borno state of Nigeria has became so devastating that some financial institutions and other business ventures have closed down in many areas thereby causing relocation of non-indigenes to their own states. It is based on this that this work attempted and establish how insecurity has affected the socio-economic development of Maiduguri the Borno state capital; the study was carried out through the administration of questionnaire and interview to seven categories of respondents, security agents; students; politicians; civil servants; traditional heads; religious leaders and business men/women in the metropolis. A random sampling method was used to select the respondent. A total of 160 respondents were involved in the study. Primary data for the study were gathered through structured questionnaires and interviews. Secondary data were obtained from existing literature. The statistical tools used for data analysis is descriptive statistics (simple percentage). The analyses were presented in the form of tables. The result/findings of the study indicated that politics/poverty, religion, unemployment, high level of illiteracy were the major factors responsible for the insecurity in Maiduguri, Borno state. The study also concluded that many lives and property were destroyed while; the cost of managing security is high on the government side. The study also revealed that investments in the state and revenue generation are greatly to combat insecurity in Borno state is dialogue/amnesty with the sect members. The study recommends that good governance will help in improving security in Maiduguri Borno state. Government should also create employment opportunities for the jobless in the state. The most effective and lasting strategy is for authority to address the root causes of the insecurity which are corruption in high places; impurity; poverty; and the total absence of hope among the segment of the society. At the end, the project proffered solutions and the way forward on how to enhance security and promote the socio-economic development of Maiduguria ffected. The study discovered that the most effective strategy and technique
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page – – – – – – – – – i
Certification – – – – – – – – ii
Dedication – – – – – – – – – iii
Acknowledgements – – – – – – – iv
Table of Contents – – – – – – – – vi
List of Tables – – – – – – – – vii
Abstract – – – – – – – – – viii
1.1 General Introduction – – – – – – 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem – – – – – 3
1.3 Objectives of the Study – – – – – – 5
1.4 Significance of the Study – – – – – 5
1.5 Definition of key Operational Concepts – – – 6
1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study – – – – 7
LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
2.1 The Concept of Insecurity – – – – – 8
2.2 Insecurity and Socio-Economic Development – – 13
2.3 Causes of Insecurity – – – – – – 18
2.3.1 Ethnicity – – – – – – – – 18
2.3.2 Lack of Education – – – – – – 19
2.3.3 Youth Bulge – – – – – – – 20
2.3.4 Poverty – – – – – – – – 21
2.3.5 Corruption – – – – – – – – 22
2.3.6 Unemployment – – – – – – – 23
2.3.7 Religious Extremisms – – – – – – 24
2.3.8 Poor Leadership and Governance – – – – 25
2.3.9 Economic Effects – – – – – – – 28
2.3.10 Social Effects – – – – – – – 32
2.3.11 Religious Effect – – – – – – – 34
2.3.12 Socio-Cultural Effect – – – – – – 34
THE METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY
3.1 The Study Area – – – – – – – 37
3.2 Sources of Data – – – – – – – 38
3.3 Population of the Study – – – – – – 38
3.4 Sampling Technique and Sampling Size – – – 39
3.5 Method of Data Collection – – – – – 40
3.6 Method of Data Analysis – – – – – – 40
DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Data Presentation – – – – – – – 41
4.2 Data Analysis – – – – – – – 42
4.3 Discussions of Major Findings – – – – 48
4.4 Policy Implication of the Findings – – – – – 49
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary – – – – – – – – 51
5.2 Conclusions – – – – – – – 52
5.3 Recommendations – – – – – – – 53
References – – – – – – – – 56
Appendix I – – – – – – – – 59
Appendix II – – – – – – – – 63
LIST OF TABLES
Table 4.1 Distribution of Respondents by sex – – – 42
Table 4.2 Distribution of Respondents by age – – – 42
Table 4.3 Distribution of Respondents by Marital status – – 43
Table 4.4 Distribution of Respondents by Educational Qualifications 44
Table 4.5 Distribution of Respondents by Occupation – – 44
Table 4.6 Factors that are responsible for insecurity on the socio
economic development of Maiduguri, Borno state. – – 45
Table 4.7 Dialogue is the only solution to the problems – – 46
Table 4.8 Insecurity on socio-economic development has affected the
people of Maiduguri Bonor, state in the following ways – – 47
Table 4.9 What do you think is the solution to the effects of insecurity
on socio economic development of Maiduguri – – – 47
1.1 General Introduction
The effects of insecurity on socio-economic development is a global issue, a portion of the world faces real insecurity. The international economy and financial context is yet to be positive. National and international lension recur and nobody really knows what tomorrow brings. This statement is pessimistic. It is doubtlessly not a new phenomenon to observe wars, local lension and economic difficulties. After the end of the Cold War a new international order was established under American influence. As evidence, the U.S.A had then become the world leader in terms of hard and soft power. The economics, political, Diplomatic, military and cultural leadership of the globe were dominated by the U.S.A.
The American foreign policies have been criticized, followed by concrete reactions towards desires of the White House. As for instance, the French declaration of the United Nations proclaiming refusal for a French military intervention in Iraq, the Russians and Chinese disagreements observed in the Iranian Nuclear Plight etc.
The new American President Barack Obama, favour a legitimate dialogue with the international community such as China, Russia, the European union (EU) etc. his intention consists in improving relation with the mentioned states or organizations and to boast socio-economic aspects, epitomizes real threat for the international community.
In African countries, the situation is different. Tensions between Christians and Muslims provoke hundreds of deaths and will probably not end soon. It is immortalizes the conflict observed in Darfur, especially in Sudan.
Another scourge strikes Nigeria, it is the first African oil producers and yet, a part of its production has gone missing due to traffic and terrorists attacks against oil pipelines. A maritime risk dwells present and terrorist attacks usually strike offshore platforms or commercial ships which virtually affected all sector for socio-economic development of Maiduguri, Borno state.
Furthermore, socio-economic condition of the Maiduguri, Borno state has became so devastating that some financial institutions and other business ventures have closed down in many areas, thereby causing relaxation of non-indigene to their own states. It is based on the above that Boko Haram Insurgency has affected and bring tremendous setback to the socio-economic situation in the Maiduguri, Borno state. During the course of the study, it was discovered that the effect of insecurity situation on the socio-economic development of Maiduguri, Borno state was a tense that even the indigenes have started to send their children and wards down to the southern part of the country for their education.
It is these objectives, economics, social and political conditions prevailing across length and breadth of Maiduguri, Borno state the historical nerve center that emergency form of the Islamist Extremism represented by Boko Haram has exploited and fed its survival by engaging in terrorism which virtually affected and bring insecurity on the socio Economic development of Maiduguri, Borno state.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Borno state, one of the Nigerians federating units, which prides itself as the “Home of Peace” has been in the news since July 2009 for the wrong reasons. The typical headlines on and about the state are coordinated and uncoordinated bombings, sporadic gun battles, raiding of police stations, targeted killings, drive by shootings, etc Borno state has become the brunt of the insecurity which has led to the loss of many lives, loss of livelihood of numerous others, burning and looting of business premises, market stalls, whole markets, public schools, recreation centers, loss of man hours due to shortened working hours by banks and commercial institutions and unprecedented loss of man hours or closure of business by those who work at night due to the curfew consequent on the state of emergency.
This has affected the informal but widespread sectors of local economy such as meat, tea, akara, venders who eke out their living on day to day basis which virtually affected socio-economic development of Maiduguri, Borno state.
It is conventional wisdom that mere can be no development without peace. The search for security and peace in Maiduguri, Borno state has been the major reasons for this research. It is still the most pressing priority all in the belief that there cannot be development in an atmosphere of violence, even though peace is often defined as absence of war, but it is not only the absence of violence but the existence of conducive environment to improve the security of socio-economic development of Maiduguri, Borno state in order to compete at both national and international level.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main objective of this study is to examine the effects of insecurity on socio-economic development of Maiduguri, Borno state. While specific objectives are to:
- identify the causes of insecurity in Maiduguri, Borno state;
- examine the effect of insecurity on access to basic staple in Maiduguri, Borno state;
- assess the effect of insecurity on education in Maiduguri, the Borno state capital.
1.4 Research Question
The following research questions were raised to provide answers to the research work:
- what are the causes of insecurity in Maiduguri, Borno state?
- What are effect of insecurity on access to basic staple in Maiduguri, Borno state?
- What are extent has insecurity affected the health status of the people in Maiduguri, Borno state?
- What are the effects of insecurity on the education of the people of Maiduguri?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
- H01: There is no significant effect of insecurity on basic staple on the people of Maiduguri, Borno state.
- H02: There is no significant effect of insecurity on the health status of Maiduguri, Borno state.
iii. H03: There is no significant effect of insecurity on the education of Maiduguri, Borno state.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This work is designed to critically examine the effects of insecurity in order to add to the existing knowledge of the insecurity. In provided necessary measures to tackling the problem and at the same time provided insight particularly to the primary, secondary and tertiary institutions, civil servant; economic elites, traditional rulers, religious leaders, local and foreign investors, Civil Society Organizations (CSO) and Non-Governmental Organization (NGO). It has helped to redress loopholes in the system and stipulated administrators to correct the situation by making the governments at all levels and the governs to realizes the imperative of peace and to be responsible, responsive and accountable in governance at all levels with a view to earning the confidence of the citizenry so that they can see government as truly theirs.
So that to embrace the essence of peace and development and to avoid conflicts and terrorism in order to attract local and foreign investors for socio-economic development of Maiduguri, Borno state.
1.7 Definition of key Operational Concepts
- Akara: can be conceptualize a version of beans cake fry in oil and tastes spicy.
- Socio-economic: Can be conceptualize or is concerned with the promotion and establishment of economy systems that will improve the living standard through effective utilisation of resources and net capital investment in production sectors of the economy which will in turn lead to a higher gross state output.
- Development: according to Michael Todaro development is conceptualize as a multi dimensional process involving changes in structures, attitudes and institutions as well as the acceleration of inequality and the eradication of absolute poverty.
1.8 Scope and Limitation of the Study
The research work is limited to focus on the effects of insecurity on the socio-economic development of Maiduguri, Borno state. Due to limited time and resources to consider Nigeria insecurity as a whole. This however, does not mean that the researchers did not consider a look at international and National Insecurity on socio-economic development of the state.
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