Home PARASITOLOGY AND ENTOMOLOGY PROJECT TOPICS AND MATERIALS MOSQUITO SURVEY THROUGH LARVAL SAMPLING AND OVITRAPPING IN PARTS OF ASABA, DELTA STATE, SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIA.

MOSQUITO SURVEY THROUGH LARVAL SAMPLING AND OVITRAPPING IN PARTS OF ASABA, DELTA STATE, SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIA.

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    ABSTRACT

    A survey of the mosquito fauna of Asaba, the Delta State capital of Southwestern
    Nigeria was undertaken between January and March 2009. The mosquito breeding
    sites, distribution, abundance and the influence of ecological factors on the
    mosquito population were determined. Asaba metropolis was subdivided into five
    zones based on population and human activities. Ovitraps were used to sample the
    Aedes mosquito populations. Larvae were collected once weekly using ladles,
    bowls, sieves and specimen bottles. Ecological sites studied were drains ground
    pools, discard vehicle tyres, domestic containers, tree holes and leaf axils. A total
    of 7,337 mosquitoes comprised of two mosquito genera (Aedes and culex) and
    three mosquito species, Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and culex
    quinquetasciatus were collected, C. quinquefasciatus 6,431(87.7%) formed the
    bulk of the collection of the 7,337 larvae, drains yielded 6,202 (84.53%) of the
    collection. out of 960 ovitraps set, 291 (31.1%) were positive with aedes eggs that
    yielded 1,553 larvae from which 780 (72.4%) emerged as adults. Two aedes
    species A. aegypti 450 (57.7%) and A. albopictus 330 (42.3%) were collected from
    the ovitraps. Both larvae and eggs collected increased or decreased with increase in
    rainfall. The health implications of high breeding rates of mosquitoes in the drains
    and domestic water containers were discussed and recommendation for mosquito
    control, health education and maintenance of clean drains were made.

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    TITLE PAGE ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. II
    CERTIFICATION ………………………………………………………………………………………………… IV
    DEDICATION …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. V
    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ……………………………………………………………………………………… VI
    TABLE OF CONTENT ………………………………………………………………………………………… VIII
    LISTS OF TABLES ………………………………………………………………………………………………. XI
    LIST OF APPENDICES ………………………………………………………………………………………… XII
    ABSTRACT ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. XV

    CHAPTER ONE …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1
    INTRODUCTION ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1

    CHAPTER TWO ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 4
    LITERATURE REVIEW ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 4
    2.1: BIOLOGY OF MOSQUITO ………………………………………………………………………………. 4
    2.1.1:EGG……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….3
    2.1.2: LARVAE …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 6
    2.1.3: PUPAE …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8
    2.1.4: ADULTS …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 9
    2.2: BREEDING HABITATS OF MOSQUITOES …………………………………………………………. 10
    2.3: ECOLOGICAL FACTORS ……………………………………………………………………………….. 10
    2.4: IMPORTANCE OF LARVAL SURVEY ……………………………………………………………….. 12
    IX
    2.5: EFFICACY OF OVITRAPS COLLECTION …………………………………………………………… 13
    2.6: ROLE OF MOSQUITO AS DISEASE VECTORS ……………………………………………………. 15
    2.7: MANAGEMENT OF MOSQUITOES ………………………………………………………………. 17

    CHAPTER THREE ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 21
    MATERIALS AND METHODS………. ………………………………………………………………21
    3.1: STUDY AREA……………………………………………………………………………………………… 21
    3.2: SELECTION OF SAMPLING SITES …………………………………………………………………… 22
    3.3: CATEGORIZATION OF MOSQUITO BREEDING SITES: ………………………………………… 22
    3.4: SAMPLING OF MOSQUITO LARVAE IN GROUND POOLS, DRAINS AND CONTAINERS23
    3.5: SAMPLING OF MOSQUITO LARVAE IN TYRES, LEAF AXILS AND TREE HOLES ………… 24
    3.6: MOSQUITO SAMPLING WITH OVITRAPS ……………………………………………………….. 24
    3.7: PROCESSING OF EGGS AND LARVAL SAMPLES ……………………………………………….. 25
    3.8: HATCHING OF THE EGGS …………………………………………………………………………….. 25
    3.9: REARING OF THE LARVAE TO ADULTS …………………………………………………………… 25
    3.10: IDENTIFICATION OF THE MOSQUITOES ……………………………………………………….. 26
    3.11: FEATURES FOR IDENTIFICATION OF MOSQUITOES ………………………………………… 26
    STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF DATA ………………………………………………………………………… 32

    CHAPTER FOUR ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 33
    RESULTS …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 33
    4.1: RESULT OF LARVAL COLLECTION ………………………………………………………………….. 33
    X
    4.2:EFFECT OF CLIMATIC DATA (RAINFALL, TEMPERATURE, RELATIVE HUMIDITY) ON
    LARVAL AND EGG COLLECTION FROM THE FIVE ZONES OF ASABA ………………………….. 37
    4.3: RESULT OF OVITRAP COLLECTION ………………………………………………………………… 39
    4.4: SOME IMPORTANT PICTURES OF THE STUDY SITES……………………………………………….46

    CHAPTER FIVE…………………..……………………………………………………58
    DISCUSSION……………………………………………………………………….….58
    5.1: MOSQUITO SPECIES……………………………………………………………………………………………….58
    5.2: MOSQUITO BREEDING SITES (MBS)………………………………………………………..……………..58
    5.3: EVALUATION OF OVITRAP PERFORMANCE(EOP)……………………………………………………60
    5.4: HATCHABILITY OF MOSQUITO EGGS (HME)……………………………………………………….….60
    5.5: OTHER FIELD OBSERVATION………………………………………………………………………………….61
    5.6: IMPLICATION FOR DISEASE TRANSMISSION…………………………………………………………..62
    5.7: CONCLUTION…………………………………………………………………………………………………………62

    REFERENCES ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 46

    APPENDIX……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 74

    CHAPTER ONE

    INTRODUCTION
    Mosquitoes are widely distributed throughout the world and they utilize different
    water bodies for their breeding (WHO, 1982). Many species breed in both natural
    and articial containers, such as pools, gutters, coconut shells, tree holes, bamboo
    stumps, leaf axils, septic tanks and other similar water bodies (Maana, 1989;
    Aigbodion and Anyiwe, 2005). The distribution of mosquitoes is inuenced both
    directly and indirectly by climatic and environmental factors (Maana et al., 1998).
    Mosquitoes prefer an environment with certain resources such as food, shelter,
    breeding sites, favourable temperature and suitable humidity, in sufficient amount
    and at an appropriate time for development and survival (Romoser & Stoffolano,
    1998). The recent increase in ecological and environmental modication due to
    agricultural activities and urbanization, has been observed to contribute to the
    breeding of various mosquito species in a rice and plaintation communities in
    Ogun State (Amusan et al., 2005).
    Mosquitoes are unquestionably the most medically important arthropod vectors of
    disease. The maintenance and transmission of the pathogens that cause malaria,
    lymphatic filariasis, and numerous viral infections are mainly dependent on the
    availability of competent mosquito vectors (Monath 1985). Human malaria, caused
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    primarily by the protozoan species, Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium
    vivax, causes high mortality and morbidity in human and animal population across
    the world, leading to enormous economic loss (Soulsby 1982, Service 1980). The
    nematodes Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi are the principal etiologic
    agents of lymphatic filariasis, causing morbidity in over 100 million individuals (
    Bockarie et al 1998). Hundreds of thousands of humans also are infected with
    mosquito-borne viruses, with yellow fever and dengue fever being two of the most
    important mosquito-transmitted viral diseases. Although the medical community
    has known for over a century the role mosquitoes play in the transmission of
    malaria and lymphatic filariasis, these diseases continue to have a devastating
    influence on the less privileged populations throughout the tropical and subtropical
    regions of the world (Service 1980). The current problems in controlling malaria
    are much more severe than those facing public health officials 30 years ago
    (Krogstad, 1996).The problems include resistance of vectors to insecticides and the
    Plasmodium parasites to drugs.
    Studies to identify local mosquito species have been carried out in several parts of
    Nigeria including Ibadan, Lagos, Zaria, Benin, Enugu and Awka (Okorie, 1973;
    Maana, 1989; Anyanwu et al., 1999; Aigbodion & Odiachi, 2003; Onyido, et al
    2002; Mbanugo, and Okpalononuju, 2003 (respectively). Constant studies on
    biology and larval ecology of mosquitoes have been observed as important tools in
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    mosquito control (WHO 1975). Such studies will help to determine the existing
    and disappearing mosquito species and their distribution (Maana et al., 1998;
    Anyanwu et al., 1999). The present study was designed to investigate the ovi
    position and larval habitats of existing mosquito fauna in Asaba, Delta state capital
    of southwestern Nigeria and its possible public health implications. (on the
    residents). Specifically, it will Sample the mosquitoes using ovitrap and larval
    collection methods in part of Asaba metropolis in Delta State, so as to determine
    the Mosquito species composition, as well as distribution and relative abundance. (
    of various Mosquito species in the area.)

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