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PRODUCTION AND SENSORY EVALUATION OF MIXED FRUIT JUICE PRODUCED FROM CITRUS

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ABSTRACT

Mixed citrus fruit juice was produced using orange, grape and tangerine. The three samples used: sample A was 33.33% orange, grape 33.33% and tangerine 33.33%. Sample B was 41.67% orange, grape 33.33% and tangerine 25% while sample C was: orange 50%, grape 41.67% and tangerine 8.33%. The mixed fruit juice samples were subjected to sensory evaluation by 10 judges. The attributes of colour, taste, aroma, Mouthfeel and general acceptability were evaluated. Sensory evaluation revealed that there were no significant differences in colour, taste; aroma and Mouthfeel whereas, there was significant difference in general acceptability.

Overall, sample A was more preferred to the panelist as a result of equal percentage of fruits contained in it.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page    …     ….     ….     ….     ….     ….     i

Certification  ….  ….     ….     ….     ….     ….     ii

Dedication  ….     ….     ….     ….     ….     ….     iii

Acknoledgement ….      ….     ….     ….     ….     ….     iv

Table of content ….                 ….     ….     ….     ….     v

Abstract ….         ….     ….     ….     ….     ….     vi

CHAPTER ONE

1.0      Introduction ….  ….     ….     ….     ….     …..    1

1.1      Justification ….  ….     ….     ….     ….     …..    2

1.2      Aims and Objectives     ….    ….     ….     ….     …..    3

CHAPTER TWO

2.0      Literature Review ….   ….     ….     ….     ….     4

2.1      Features of Citrus fruit   ….   ….     ….     ….     …..    5

2.2     Orange Fruits …. ….     ….     ….     ….     5

2.3     Grape Fruit   ….   ….     ….     ….     ….     7

2.4    Tangerine Fruit ….         ….     …..    …..    …..    8

2.5    Cultivation and Harvest of Citrus Fruit …. …..    …..    9

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2.6    Uses of Citrus fruit ….   ….     …..    …..    …..    10

2.7    Nutritional and Health Benefits of Citrus ….       …..    …..    11

CHAPTER THREE

3.0   Material and Method ….      …..        ……   …..    …..    14

3.1   Materials …..              …..        ……  ……  ……  ……  14

3.2   Methodology ….    …..    …..    …..    …..    14

3.3   Sensory Evaluation ….   …..    ……  …..    ……  15

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0   Result and Discussion …..        …..    …..    …..    16

4.1   Result ….     …..    …..    ……  …..    ……  16

4.2    Discussion …..     …..    …..    …..    ……  …..    19

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0   Conclusion and Recommendation …..         …..    ……  20

5.1   Conclusion   …..    …..    ……  ……  ……

5.2    Recommendation ….      …..    …..    …..    ……

References

CHAPTER ONE

        INTRODUCTION

Botanically fruits are parts of flowering plants derived from the fertilization of specific tissues such as one or more ovaries of flowers (Masuseth 2003). They are non-staple foods which make up about 39% of food intake of persons living in developing countries of Africa (Bates et.al 2001). In non-technical usage, such as food preparations, fruits normally represent the fleshy, seed bearing structures of certain plants that are edible in certain raw state (potter and Hotchkiss 1996). The nutritional and chemical compositions of various fruits have been reported by (chondhury, 1983; Oguntona and Akinyele 1995; Nazarudeen, 2010 and Auta ET el., 2011).

Fruits are important sources of sugars, vitamin A, C and B group, low protein and lipid respectively (Tindall; 1990). Also, they have been shown to contain high amounts of minerals, moisture, low ash and crude fibre. In addition, fruits contain little or no fats or sodium being a plant food no cholesterol (Economos 2008), thus nutritionally healthy. When consumed with other foods, fruits can nutritionally supplement diets in developing countries. Beyond nutrients, fruits also contain high levels of bio-active and other physiochemicals such as antioxidants(e.g  polyphenols), soluble fibres(e.g  pectin and beta-glucanase), prebiotics(e.g insulin and fructan), vitamins (e.g vitamin A, B and C) flavone glycosides(e.g hesperidin) and organic acids e.g tartaric acid  which as functional food materials or nutraceuticals, provide specific health benefits such as prevention of diseases and growth of gut pathogens, enhancement of body immunity, protection against heart diseases, cancer, osteoporosis,  hypertention, regulation of ageing e.t.c(mcCrea 2001).

Unfortunately, most of these beneficial compounds found mostly on the peels are often lost while processing (raspisada et al, 1999). However, fruits are highly perishable and seasonal in nature. For this reason, they can be eaten fresh or processed into many fruit products there by reducing post-harvest losses and supplying consumers with nutrients and diet variety.

1.1     JUSTIFICATION

Sweet orange, tangerine fruits are popular fruits used for commercial fruit juice and mixed fruit juice production in Nigeria. Also, they play an important role in diets particularly in the rural areas. Hence, this study becomes very important in imparting knowledge on the juice industry and creating information and guided choice of consumption for the benefit of consumers in Nigeria.

They are highly perishable fruits as a result of high moisture content; some of these fruit are wasted due to poor storage facilities and poor transport system from place of harvest to where they are converted to finished product.

1.2       AIMS AND OBJECTIVE

  1. To produce fruit juice with oriented product soured from citrus fruit.
  2. To make sure that citrus fruit products are economically ultilized when readily available by processing it into fruit juice this can be consumed when the fruits are no longer in seism.

iii.  To compare the sensory and organoleptic characteristic (color, taste, aroma, Mouthfeel and general acceptability) of mixed fruit juice from locally sourced citrus fruits: Orange, tangerine and grape.

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