Number of Pages: 99

File Size: 1247 KB

File Type: MS Word & PDF

Chapters: 1 - 5


Cover page i
Title page ii
Approval page iii
Certification page iv
Examiners page v
Declaration page vi
Dedication page vii
Acknowledgement page viii
Table of content x
Abstract 1
1.1 background of the study 2
1.2 Statement of research problem 4
1.3 Objectives of the study 4
1.3 Hypothesis 4
1.4 Significance of the study 4
1.5 Scope of the study 5
1.6 Limitation of the study 5
1.7 Definition of terms 5
2.0 Literature review 6
2.1 History 9
2.2 Paper-pen based exam 11
2.3 Computer based exam 15
2.5 Comparism 24
2.6 over view of paper-pen examination and computer based examination
3.1 Study design 42
3.2 Source of data 42
3.3 Study population 42
3.4 Sample size 42
3.5 Sampling technique 43
3.6 Instrument of data collection 43
3.7 Inclusion criteria 43
3.8 Exclusion criteria 44
3.9 Data analysis 44
3.10 Ethical consideration 44
4.1 RESULTS 45
5.1 Discussion 79
5.2 Summary of findings 81
5.3 Conclusions 82
5.4 Recommendations 83
5.5 Contribution to knowledge 84
5.6 Area for further studies 84
Appendices 91
Table 4.1: Demography: Distribution of age of the participants 48
Table 4.2: Distribution of participants’ gender 49
Table 4.3: Distribution of participants’ educational level 50
Table 4.4: showing comparism between paper and pen exams (PPE) and electronic exams (e-exam) in Rad 201 results 51
Table 4.5: showing comparism between paper and pen exams (PPE) and electronic exams (e-exam) in Rad 331 results 52
Table 4.6: showing comparism between paper and pen exams (PPE) and electronic exams (e-exam) in Rad 431 results 53
Table 4.7: showing comparism between paper and pen exams (PPE) and electronic exams (e-exam) in Rad 531 results 54
Table 4.8: Result of chi-square analysis of Rad 201result 55
Table 4.9: Result of chi-square analysis of Rad 331result 56
Table 4.10: Result of chi-square analysis of Rad 431result 56 Table 4.11: Result of chi-square analysis of Rad 531result 56 Table 4.12: showing the attitude and perception of radiography students on computer based examination (CBE)
Table 4.13: physical structures/facilities of CBE 56 Table 4.14: showing variable questions on the preference of PPE and the problems encountered by students in PPE and CBE. 57

FIG 4.1 showing the age distribution of the respondents 46

FIG 4.2 showing the gender distribution of the respondents 47
TITLE: A comparison of performance of radiography students on computer based (electronic examination) and written examinations: a case study of university of Maiduguri.
OBJECTIVES: To compare academic performance differences among computer based (e-exams) and paper-pen examination in some selected courses; Rad 201,Rad 331,Rad 431,Rad 531 in 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 academic sessions and to determine the students attitude towards e-examination.
MATERIAL AND METHOD: The research design adopted for this study is a descriptive survey method. A quota sampling and simple random sampling techniques were used to administer the questionnaires to 171 radiography students (45 students each from part 2, 3 and 4 while 36 from part 5) and the whole questionnaires were retrieved.The research was conducted using a structured and open ended questionnaire designed to assess participants demographic profile, their perception on CBE, comparison between CBE and PPE, and physical structure/facilities. SPSS version 16.0 (IBM, US, NEW YORK) was used to analyse the data where descriptive statistics; such as, frequency, mean and percentage were generated. Also chi-square was used to compare the differences in performance between CBE and PPE.
RESULTS: The results show that the performance on paper-pen exam is higher in the four courses ; Rad 201,Rad 331,Rad 431 and Rad 531 which was observed with failure rate of 16.3%, 9.3%,1.9% and 0.0% with average of 49.27, 53.33, 55.02 and 54.83 respectively during 2013/2014 academic session while the same courses in 2014/2015 after the introduction of electronic exam(computer based exam CBE ) in the four courses has 42.9%,11.6%,13.0% and 2.0% with average of 40.16, 29.62,53.09 and 46.42 respectively.
Based on content analysis, the respondents 38(22.2%) strongly agree that performance in CBE was better than the PPE and 51(29.8%) agree, 0(0%) neither agree nor disagree, 67(39.2%) disagree and 15(8.8%) strongly disagree to the above statement.
CONCLUSION: This research showed that students academic performance is better in written (paper and pen exam) than in electronic exam (e-exam, computer based exam). The students prefer written exam to e-exam mode in radiography department of university of Maiduguri.
KEY WORDS: examination, computer base exam, paper and pen exam, attitude
Examination is an assessment indeed to measure a test-takers knowledge, skills, attitude, fitness or classification in many other topics as defined by wikipedia (Rehmani, 2003). Examination can be either paper-pen or electronic examination (e-exam).
Paper-pen examination may be defined as printed set of questions used to test somebody’s knowledge in an exam (Encarta, 2010). Ayo et al. (2007) defines e-examination as a system that “involves the conduct of examinations through the web or the intranet”. Various examination methods are used in universities and other higher education institutions to assess academic progress for example, paper-pencil-based examinations, assignments, presentations etc. Sim, Holifield, and Brown (2004) identified more than 50 varied techniques used within higher education for assessment purposes; the most commonly used are examinations. Both computer based and written exams have their advantages and disadvantages, the conventional examination is plagued with several pitfalls such as examination leakages, Impersonations, inadequate supervisors, demand for gratification by markers, and the most devastating is the delay and non-release of examination results especially where there are large classes or public examinations.
However, some of the disadvantages associated with computer based assessment, including that Computer crashes are more difficult to resolve than broken pencils. There is the potential that an entire testing session, along with all students’ responses could be lost. Back-up procedures are essential, both in terms of storing student responses and having alternative means to administer the test (Bridgeman, 2009), However computer is also made unsafe for storing official and classified documents in university system and government agencies by computer hackers. A case of hacking in 2015 election was recorded where someone hacked into the INEC website to report results.
The university examinations as a higher education institution make use of both written and electronic forms of exams. The written exams (paper and pen testing or paper based exams) are more subjective when it comes to marking in the lecturers’ perspective while the computer based exam (e-exams or web based assessment) are more objective but ones a correct answer is type set as a wrong answer, it can’t be corrected ones exam starts and at the end of the assessment what you see is what you actually get.
The deployment of e-exams began shortly after the university senate approved the commencement of e-examination as from 2009/2010 academic session for departments that are willing and some departments took their examinations electronically during that session. The Radiography department attempted the use of e-test in 2011 and in 2014/2015 academic session 90% of the courses
were more of e-exams and the department adopted it as a tool for assessing students.
Moreover, negative comments from students arouse as a result of dissatisfaction with the type of MCQ’s they answer and the slow nature of the system to proceed to next question which is independent of the timer count down of the exam starting and finishing time which does not allow students to answer all within the time limit.
The researcher observed that student’s poor academic achievement has been recorded where in RAD 201 many students failed after being thought by the same course lecturer, same handouts, same course outline and the same learning environment. The researcher compared the results of RAD 201 in 2013/2014 academic session which was paper and pen examination and found that in a class of 98 students the result distribution was 2A, 9B+, 17B, 21C+, 8C, 14D, 11E, 16F with failure rate 16.3% While the results of the same course RAD 201 in 2014/2015 academic session which was e-exams found that in a class of 116 students the result distribution was 3A, 1B+, 7B, 5C+, 8C, 16D, 34E, 42F with failure rate 36.1% .
In percentage, the written examinations has the following: A(2.0%), B+(9.2%), B(17.3%), C+(21.4%), C(8.2%), D(14.3%), E(11.2%), F(16.3%) While the e-exams has the following: A (2.58%), B+(0.86%), B(6.02%), C+(4.30%), C(6.88), D(13.76%), E(29.24%), F(36.12%). The aim of the study is to assess
the performance difference and perception among radiography students on computer-Based and paper-pen examination.
It has been observed by the researcher that huge number of students have complained about the e-examination application as an assessment tool following a decline in their academic performances since its inception in 2009/2010 in UNIMAID.
1. To compare academic performance differences among computer based (e-exams) and paper-pen examination in some selected courses; Rad 201, Rad 331, Rad 431, Rad 531 in 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 academic sessions.
2. To determine the students attitude towards e-examination.
1.3 Hypothesis:
Null hypothesis: states that there is no difference between two population means therefore H0: x1 = x2. Alternate hypothesis: states that there is difference between two means and therefore H1: X1 ≠ X2
1. Lecturers will have an understanding of their students preferred methods of examinations(evaluation) and will be in position to make more informed choice on evaluation tools to adopt to improve effective teaching and learning in their courses.
2. This study will serve as a guide for educational planners of radiography programme in UNIMAID in reviewing evaluation strategy.
3. The result of this study will provide baseline data for further research by others in the time ahead.
The study was conducted among radiography students of UNIMAID and it lasted for a period of 5 months as from January 2016– May 2016.The aim of the study is to determine the students attitude towards electronic exams.
The respondents may not have given honest answers to the questions provided in the questionnaires.
1. Computer: this is an electronic device capable of interpreting and executing programmed commands for input, output, computation and logic operations. it is a programmable machine that respond to a specific set of instruction in a well defined manner and it can execute a pre-recorded list of instruction when instructed(Webopedia, 2009)
2. Examination: is an assessment indeed to measure a test-takers knowledge, skills, attitude, fitness or classification in many other topics (Wikipedia)
3. Paper-pen examination: may be defined as printed set of questions used to test somebody’s knowledge in an exam (Encarta, 2010)
4. E-Examination: is defined as a system that “involves the conduct of examinations through the web or the intranet”. (Ayo et. al., 2007)
5. Assessment: the critical analysis of the status of a particular condition (saunders comprehensive veterinary dictionary,2007)
6. Academic Performance: is the outcome of education, the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their educational goals.(wikipedia,2016)
7. Perception: The way you notice things, especially with the senses (Mitchell, 2009).


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