Number of Pages: 29

File Size: 113 KB

File Type: MS Word & PDF

Chapters: 1 - 5

3,000.00

Table of Contents
INTRODUCTION ……………………………………………………………………………………….1
WATER DISTRIBUTION …………………………………………………………………………1
Drinking and domestic use ………………………………………………………………………1
Importance of good water supply ……………………………………………………………..2
Description of the purification methods …………………………………………………….3
Water safety and quality …………………………………………………………………………5
Faults in the system ……………………………………………………………………………….6
WATER-BORNE RELATED DISEASES ……………………………………………………7
Classification ………………………………………………………………………………………..7
Indicator organisms………………………………………………………………………………..8
Interview ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 12
Basic Historical Context: ……………………………………………………………………… 12
Interview Summary: ……………………………………………………………………………. 12
OBJECTIVES AND HYPOTHESIS …………………………………………………………. 15
Objectives: ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 15
Hypothesis: …………………………………………………………………………………………… 15
MATERIALS AND METHODS ………………………………………………………………. 16
Materials: ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 16
Reagents:………………………………………………………………………………………………. 16
Methods: ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 17
Procedure: …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 17
Presumptive Test: ……………………………………………………………………………….. 17
Completed Test: ………………………………………………………………………………….. 20
Precautions: …………………………………………………………………………………………… 21
RESULTS …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 22
Table 2.1 showing the results of the Presumptive Test carried on a section of
AUN Distribution System. …………………………………………………………………….. 22
DISCUSSION ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 23
Table 2.2 showing the Presumptive Test of the positive tubes during the outage
period ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 23
Table 2.3 showing the Presumptive Test after subtracting the number of hours
lost and putting in an incubator. …………………………………………………………….. 24
Results Compared with Other Water Systems ……………………………………………… 24
v
Weaknesses and Strengths of AUN Distribution System: …………………………… 24
Plans to Increase or Decrease Water Supply: ……………………………………………. 25
RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION ……………………………………………. 26

INTRODUCTION
WATER DISTRIBUTION
Generally, water has numerous purposes: drinking; bathing; washing clothes
and dishes; cooking; flushing toilet, irrigation, just to name a few. Its significance
cannot be over stressed. This is on the grounds that every day each individual uses
water for one thing or the other.
As water flows throughout the distribution system, microorganisms can
contaminate the flow of water through the pipes, air valves, pump boosters, network
of piping system and sometimes through the plumbing system.
Inability to attain a water quality as high as feasible can open individuals to
the risk of getting diseases that can easily be avoided through percussive methods.
Drinking and domestic use
Household or domestic water is mainly the water used for drinking, washing
and cleaning purposes. Water quality hence is dependent on its micro-constituents
and whether or not it has adverse effects on consumption. Therefore, water
containing harmful or toxic microorganisms and elements is regarded as unfit for
household consumption. Basic examples of toxins found in household water
incorporate microorganisms, for example, protozoa viruses, and bacteria; inorganic
contaminants, for example, salts, metals, radioactive contaminants and small
amounts of organic contaminants.
However, industrial water includes water sources used mainly for industrial
purposes. The quality of water in this scenario is therefore slightly different than the
water meant for consumption purposes. For instance, hard water, which constitutes
2
high concentrations of minerals, hampers the effectiveness of soaps or detergents
whereas drinking water should most preferably be hard water because of the
presence of ions such as calcium and magnesium.
On the other hand, environmental water describes water available to the
biosphere and which in some way affects the balance of the ecosystem. Lethal
constituents and high masses of specific microorganisms pose risks for non-drinking
purposes, for example, swimming and irrigation which inhabits the use of domestic
water. The measured quality of water bodies is called Ambient Water Quality.
Importance of good water supply
The quality of water is noted as important not only because it affects health,
but also because it has the tendency to improve it as well. The body is made up of
70% water and the amounts of magnesium and calcium present in any body of
consumable water has the ability to improve bone mass and density.
The elements present in water, depending on their quantities, have the ability
to hamper the effectiveness of industrial machines by causing rust, brittleness,
clogging, bursting, etc. Hence, to ensure the a good standard water quality, there
needs to be an understanding of what pollutants and contaminants upset the balance
of water constituents is necessary to ensure that balance is not tempered with.
Trace levels of ammonia, barium, lead, copper, nitrites, radium, selenium,
etc. have negative effects on humans if present in large amounts and can only be
curtailed via treatment. There is the point-of-use treatment which involves the
treatment of water at the point of consumption using methods such as reverse
osmosis, ultraviolet technologies and distillation. On the other hand, point-of-entry
3
involves the treatment of water needed for household chores using methods such as
ion replacement and filtration. On the line of water distribution or supply, filtration
comes as it is a key process in ensuring good water quality.
Description of the purification methods
Physical Form of Water Purification: It is thus named because it is concerned with
filtration techniques. Filtration is used while purifying water because it effectively
rids the said portion of water of particles, silts or debris. Sometimes, for special
purposes, specific filters capable of filtering out bacterial form can be engaged. A
few examples of physical purification include:
1. Screen: Usually used to remove large contaminants like leaves and twigs.
2. Sand Filtration: It is a vigorous process used to remove suspended solids
from water. It consists mainly of a filter medium containing multiple sand
layers of different sizes and densities. These solids are precipitated as residue
when water is made to flow through the filter. Because smaller solids have
the ability to pass through sand filters, they are subjected to a secondary
filtration.
3. Cross Flow Filtration: This is a filtration concerned with using a permeable
membrane to remove both salts and dissolved organic matter that only
permeates the contaminants. The filtrate is removed as the process goes on.
The following are types of cross flow filtration: micro-filtration, ultrafiltration
and reversed osmosis.
4. Cartridge Filtration: It generally operates effectively and economically on
applications having excessively high contamination levels. They consist of
fibers and are normally used as final processes as polishing filters.
4
Chemical Form of Water Purification
1. Chemical Addition: This process mainly consists of agents such as chelating,
oxidizing and reducing agents. They are necessary to add to the water to
prevent the negative effects of hardness, caused by the deposition of elements
2. Clarification: It consists of a series of processes that involves the addition of
coagulants to remove large. Suspended solids. Coagulants help to reduce the
charges of ions causing the particles to gather and form larger particles called
Flocs. These particles are removed as water flows. Further treatment may be
needed because the water may still contain some suspended solids.
3. Deionization and Softening: This is commonly processed through a system
called Ion Exchange. It consists of a tank of synthetic resin which is treated to
selectively absorb certain cations or anions and replace them with desirable
counter-ions until all the available spaces are filled up with ions.
4. Disinfection: Disinfection is one of the most important and widely known
steps in the purification of water for household use. Often referred to as
biocides, they serve the purpose of killing undesired microorganisms in the
water; ozone, chlorine and controlled UV-radiation disinfections are good
examples.
5. Distillation: Distillation is the collection of water vapor, after boiling.
Because most contaminants do not vaporize, with a properly designed
system, the remaining organic and inorganic contaminants and biological
impurities can be obtained.
6. Electro dialysis: Electro dialysis is a complex technique which employs the
use of electrical currents and special membranes – membranes which are
semi permeable to ions based on their charge. Those membranes that
5
permeate cations and anions are placed alternately with electrodes on each
side and flow channels between them. The electrodes draw their counter ions
through the membranes, so that these are removed from the water.
Sometimes, the water in cities are pH adjusted to prevent corrosion from
pipes and to prevent the dissolution of lead into the water supplies.
Biological Water Purification
Biological water purification is a process undertaken to lower the load [The
Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD)] of dissolved organic compounds using
Microorganisms such as bacteria to decompose these compounds. There are two
main categories of biological treatment: aerobic treatment where the water is aerated
with oxygen and anaerobic treatment which runs under oxygen free conditions.
Water safety and quality
Water is one of the key fundamental supplements required by the body in
sufficient amount in other for authentic human functioning. It is not produced by the
body. It constitutes some amount of the body fluid, for example: sweat, urine, blood,
saliva, just to name a few. Then again, it can be acquired from the ingestion of food
and fruits.
The nature of water ought to be free from high concentrations of any
pathogenic microorganism that can result in an ailment on intake. Pathogenic
microorganisms can be evident but should not be present in concentrations that can
result in disruption of the body on intake. Throughout the years, there has been much
discussion over the satisfactory concentration of pathogenic microorganisms in
6
water. Be that as it may, the United States Environmental Policy Agency (USEPA)
worked up an adequate concentration level that is renowned around the world.
Around the world, diverse health organizations have set principles for water
quality. Out of the different sorts of water sources, water taken into the body ought
not to contain microorganisms like bacteria, and should have a low concentration of
dangerous chemicals (that is, chemicals toxic to humans). The presence of these
microbes in water are evident in nature and testing for specific bacteria can be time
consuming. This is why it is better to use indicator organisms to check if coliforms
exist in water distribution systems.
Water quality is a term most adequately used to insinuate the substance,
physical, organic, and radiological characteristics of water. It should measure the
condition of water bodies in respect to the requirements of one or more life structures
and to any human need. Regularly, the most broadly perceived benchmarks used to
assess water quality relate to wellbeing and the security of human contact and
drinking water. Therefore, the nature of desired water quality fluctuates with
intended usage.
Faults in the system
The following is a list of reasons for water pollution:
• Untreated water from motorways and cleared surfaces when it rains runs-off
conveying sediments, lethal chemicals from the engine of vehicles, pesticides
and composts from gardens, pathogens and microscopic organisms like
bacteria from pet waste and broken septic tanks into nearby water bodies.
7
• The increase of nutrients leads to large algal blooms which eventually leads
to reduced amounts of dissolved oxygen in the water after the death and
decomposition of these algae creating hypoxic or “dead zones,” in which
organisms cannot survive.
• Also wastes that are not appropriately discarded wash into drains or get
blown into waterways and turn into debris.
WATER-BORNE RELATED DISEASES
Classification
Contamination of water by disease causing and non-causing organisms
happens mainly from the source where water is obtained, although it can also arise
during water treatment or within the distribution system. Contamination may also
arise due to some environmental factors.
One of the significant water pollution issues seen to be prevalent is the
exposure to transmittable diseases through water that is contaminated with mammal
waste. Water-borne related diseases usually arise from the use of water that has both
been treated but there is a problem with the efficacy of the process and generally
water that has not gone through any treatment processes. Flushing out the water
distribution system really helps in reducing the risk of getting water borne related
diseases.
Furthermore, the inclusion of filters at different points in the water
distribution system helps in the reduction and finally elimination. As a result if this,
the probability of water-borne related diseases occurring is reduced because the
8
filters filtrate both pathogenic and non-pathogenic organisms and ensure the
cleanness of water quality.
Water pathogens such as Giardia and Salmonella can be introduced in as a
result of periodic habitation of domestic animals. These animals that live near water
areas are known reserves for these intestinal pathogens and are causative agents of
water uncleanness.
Indicator organisms
Water comprises fundamentally of microorganisms that are unsafe to
mammals in general.
Simply put, indicator organisms are organisms used as an intermediary to
screen conditions in a particular environment. Indicator organisms include mainly of
three types: indicator bacteria, which are used to show the existence of coliforms in
water bodies; indicator fungi, used for microbial testing as a part of pharmaceutical
organizations routine when making drugs and indicator helminths, which are used to
check the safety of recycled waste water.
However, indicator bacteria organisms like coliforms are good indicators in
checking for the presence or absence of pathogenic organisms. This is solely because
indicator organisms help show fecal contamination in water. In cases of fecal
contamination, indicator organisms ought to show up in concentrations that can be
corresponded with a degree of contamination and also, should have a life expectancy
rate that is not higher than that of pathogenic organisms. This is so that indicator
bacteria can show their presence. Since most pathogens are not easily found,
9
indicator organisms are used as a monitoring tool in changes or conditions in the
environment, in relation to water.
One of the most widely used group of indicator organisms is the coliform
bacteria. These organism are defined by their unique characteristics: organisms that
ferment lactose and produce gas under high temperature. Coliforms do not normally
occur in surface water, but are always found in human and animal faeces. Therefore,
the presence of coliforms in water indicates the presence of recent fecal
contamination.
In cases of fecal contamination, indicator organisms ought to appear in
concentrations that correspond with the degree of contamination and also, should
have a life expectancy that is not longer than that of pathogenic organisms. Since
many pathogens are not easily cultured in the lab, indicator organisms are used as a
monitoring tool in changes or conditions in the environment, in relation to water.
In relation to epidemiological studies, it is not generally important for
indicator organisms to show fecal contamination in water. It might be sufficient to
get a sign of the existence of individual pathogen by different techniques. The most
imperative system is to discover, specify and give an estimate of seen coliforms.
Most Probable Number (MPN) Test
The most probable number test is a useful tool when trying to undergo an
assessment of the quality of water. The test is used to assess the concentration of
viable microorganisms in water by means of using liquid broth growth as a means to
monitor in series of dilutions. It is also helpful in undermining the particulate
material that interferes with plate count enumeration methods.
10
This is one of the various tests that can be utilized to test the quality of water.
It takes into consideration the discovery of the vicinity of coliforms in specimens
also, estimation of their numbers. It comprises of three stages.
The first stage is the presumptive test. Here, lauryl tryptose broth (LTB),
which is used, is comprises of tryptose, lactose, sodium chloride, dipotassium
phosphate, monopotassium phosphate, and sodium lauryl sulphate. Fermentation by
the coliforms produces gas which is a positive result showing coliform presence.
The media is made in different strengths. The double-strength media is made
using double the amassing of single-strength.
Series of dilutions are produced using the water tests by including 10ml of
water sample to five tubes of double strength, 1ml to five tubes of single strength and
0.1ml to five tubes of single strength. Durham tubes are put inside every tube that
contains the water containing the broth (Gerba & Pepper, 2004). These Durham
tubes identify the presence of gas. The gas is delivered by the aging of lactose by the
coliforms. A table is then used to enumerate the amount of coliforms found of each
sample per 100ml.
The last test is the completed test. Here the presence of pathogenic
organisms like E.coli, are tested for in the positive indicated tubes. Levine’s Eosin
Methylene Blue (EMB) and Endo agar are used. (Gerba & Pepper, 2004, p. 118).
Levine’s EMB agar contains methylene blue which hinders gram-positive
microscopic organisms (Gerba & Pepper, 2004, p. 117). In EMB medium, lactose
fermenters show up nucleated or with a green sheen while non-coliforms don’t have
nucleated settlements (Maier, Pepper, & Gerba, 2009, p. 488). E.coli and
11
Enterobacter aerogenes can be separated in light of size with E.coli being littler and
having a metallic sheen (Gerba & Pepper, 2004, p. 118).
Endo agar contains a fuschsin sulfite marker which helps in identifying
lactose fermenters (Gerba & Pepper, 2004, p. 118). For the Endo agar, other colonies
could be seemly red while non-forming ones have no color (Maier, Pepper, & Gerba,
2009, p. 488)
12
Interview
Basic Historical Context:
This is an interview conducted on the basis of getting to know how the AUN water
distribution system works. Also, it was conducted to give the student a firsthand
exposure with water resource engineers in the field. The interview was structured in
such a way to get information concerning mainly the weaknesses and strengths of the
system and how the distribution system here works. It was conducted on the 7th of
April, 2015 while the informant, Mr. Dahiru was taking the student and Dr. Boyd on
a tour of the distribution system and lasted for about 45minutes.
Interview Summary:
In AUN, there are two different kinds of lines or pipes that supply water. They are:
the Fire Hydrant line and the Potable Water line.
The fire hydrant line is hardly used. It is used in fire emergencies or when there is
low supply of water to some part of the school. It has a booster pump that allows for
the attainment of a lot of pressure to quench fire during outbreaks.
The first place to experience water in times of crises or when water is pumped is the
lowest point on campus which is the Roseria Volpi dorm. This is after water has been
pumped. If there is no water on campus, it is the last place to experience water
outage and the first place to regain water after pumping.
The Potable water line has a booster but is not used because topographically, the
storage and distribution tanks are situated at the highest point on campus. Also,
because minus the advantage of the distribution tank being the highest point on
campus, the tank is also 12 meters tall which allows for gravitational free flow of
13
water, hence, it works mainly with gravity. When being distributed, gets to the top of
each building before distributing round the building.
Water on campus is continually pumped. This is done in order to avoid water crisis.
However, what keeps the water resource people in check is the graduated rule
located on the tank and the meter inside the control room which shows a precise
reading of the level of water currently inside the tank.
In the distribution system, steels pipes are used from the pump site to the storage
tank and plastic pipes throughout the distribution system on campus. All the
buildings on campus are interlinked to the distribution tank. On campus, these pipes
have junctions that break off to supply other buildings. However, no building has its
own storage tank. Water moves with the right amount of pressure and satisfies each
building requirement.
Initially at the onset of AUN, the school drilled 13 boreholes. After a few years,
these boreholes could not deliver as much water as it was intended to distribute.
Normally, AUN requires 120 cubic meters of water per hour but those initially
drilled boreholes could not deliver as much.
After assessing the situation, Mr. Dahiru got permission from Mr. Alex Cobo to drill
two boreholes which are the ones the currently being used by the university. The
AUN borehole does not just supply water to the campus but also supplies to the AUN
hotel, AUN club, AUN printing press and to the Faculty housing at North Campus.
These boreholes work in such a way that they are dependent on backflow. Backflow
means that when the storage tank on campus is filled up, a designated pumping
machine on campus automatically pumps the water back to the pump site causing the
14
people at the control room to switch off the pumping machine. This allows for
constant water supply to the faculty housing, the club, printing press and hotel.
At the site, fumigation was stopped two years ago because fumigation contaminates
the water system. Occasionally, the boreholes are serviced.
The septic tanks on campus are interconnected and the network of these tanks are
being sent to a general septic tank which is emptied twice a year.
Water tests are conducted quarterly every months. It comprises of two main tests:
Biological and Chemical analysis.
The United States Environmental Protection Agency, USEPA, put together a chart
that shows a tolerable level of acceptance of water quality and that is what the
campus uses.
15
OBJECTIVES AND HYPOTHESIS
Objectives:
– To check for the negative health effects of drinking water containing
coliform bacteria.
– To find out how much coliforms are in the cafeteria (the dispenser and water
used for cooking).
– To compare the amount and type of colonies found in each collection point
with the nearby sewer.
Hypothesis:
The number of coliform bacteria currently present in AUN distribution system is
enough to cause water-borne related diseases.

DOWNLOAD THE FULL WORK

DISCLAIMER: All project works, files and documents posted on this website, UniProjectTopics.com are the property/copyright of their respective owners. They are for research reference/guidance purposes only and some of the works may be crowd-sourced. Please don’t submit someone’s work as your own to avoid plagiarism and its consequences. Use it as a reference/citation/guidance purpose only and not copy the work word for word (verbatim). The paper should be used as a guide or framework for your own paper. The contents of this paper should be able to help you in generating new ideas and thoughts for your own study. UniProjectTopics.com is a repository of research works where works are uploaded for research guidance. Our aim of providing this work is to help you eradicate the stress of going from one school library to another in search of research materials. This is a legal service because all tertiary institutions permit their students to read previous works, projects, books, articles, journals or papers while developing their own works. This is where the need for literature review comes in. “What a good artist understands is that nothing comes from nowhere. All creative work builds on what came before. Nothing is completely original.” - Austin Kleon. The paid subscription on UniProjectTopics.com is a means by which the website is maintained to support Open Education. If you see your work posted here by any means, and you want it to be removed/credited, please contact us with the web address link to the work. We will reply to and honour every request. Please notice it may take up to 24 – 48 hours to process your request.

WeCreativez WhatsApp Support
Administrator (Online)
I am online and ready to help you via WhatsApp chat. Let me know if you need my assistance.