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Chapters: 1 - 5



This research was done to ascertain how aware radiographers are about the ethical code of patient rights and to access the reasons; if any for the abuse of ethical code of patient right by practicing radiographers. Result shows that there is good ethical conduct among practicing radiographers and all the practicing radiographers are aware of ethical code of patient rights.  Most of the radiographers that abuse ethical code of patient’s rights are those who have never had any course in medical ethics and those who do not agree that RRBN enforces profession ethics.


Table 1: Age and sex distribution of practicing radiographers

Table 2:Radiographers response on educational level.

Table 3:Radiographers response on whether they know that patients have right in radiology department.

Table 4: Radiographers response on explanation to patients the nature and the procedures of exam before doing it.

Table 5:Radiographers response on patients objection to  exam as a result of fear or any other reason.

Table 6: Radiographers response on seeking for patient consent before carrying out radiological exams on them

Table 7:Radiographers response on how they manage patients information.

Table 8:Radiographers response on colleagues’ abuse of ethical code of patient’s right.

Table 9: Radiographers response on ensuring patients privacy during exam

Table 10:Radiographers response on following patients request card sequentially in calling them in for radiological exams.

Table 11:Test of Chi-square distribution of indices

Table 12:Chi-square value of indices

                                       LIST OF FIGURES

Fig 1:Bar chart showing radiographers response on having had a course on medical ethics

Fig 2:Bar chart showing radiographers response on whether RRBN enforces the practice of professional ethics


Title page    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        i

Approval Page     –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –       ii

Dedication  –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        iii

Certification         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        iv

Acknowledgement         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        v

Abstract      –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        vi

List of tables and figures         –        –        –        –        –        –        -vii

Table of content   –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –    viii



  • Background of the study
  • Statement of the problem
  • Objective of the study
  • Significance of the study
  • Scope of the study
  • Hypothesis
  • Literature review


2.1     Professional ethics

2.2     Ethical code of patient right

2.3     Ethical responsibilities of radiographers

2.4     Medicologal implication of radiographers and health professionals to the patient



3.1     Research Design

3.2     Target population

3.3     Sampling Size

3.4     Instrument for data collection

3.5     Procedure for data collection



4.1 Data presentation and analysis

4.2 Test of Hypothesis


5.1     Discussion of data

5.2     Summary of finding

5.3     Recommendation

5.4     Conclusion

5.5 Limitation of study






In the rapidly changing atmosphere of health care, many factors have affected how health care is practiced. The rights of the patient have also been affected. Patient rights have recently become the center of national attention in the practice of medicine. The push for legislation of a patients’ bill of rights is to provide laws that would prevent health maintenance organizations (HMOs) and other managed health plans from refusing to pay for appropriate care. A patient’s rights occur at many different levels, and in all specialties.

According to J. fletche28 the phrase ethics means merely a body of rules to govern the social behavior and graces of professional. He further stated that failure to comply with the ethical provisions of a profession culminates in malpractice which is punishable by the board or body.

The science of ethics, therefore aims to define the grounds and validity of the various system of principles and secondary rules governing conduct and duty. The radiographers are expected to explain the nature and procedures of the examination to the patient and also give him instruction on what to do before the examination commences. The patient has the right to object to certain examination based on the risk, religion, or belief before the examination is done. It is usually taken for granted that competent adult has the right to decide for themselves what will be done to their bodies.

According to the American Registry of Radiologic Technologists1, radiographers agree to abide by the Code of Ethics of The American Registry of Radiologic Technologists and have an obligation to apply those principles to ensure that the patients entrusted to them receive the best possible care. This is similar to what the radiographers in Nigeria agree to abide by. This is usually taken on the day of induction. Whenever an issue arises that may compromise that care, radiographer must know how to advocate for the patient. In order to do so effectively, they must be well-acquainted with the principles, rules, and policies governing their profession as well as understand that continuing education is vital to fulfill the duties and responsibilities appointed to them.

Although the radiographer understands the definition of the word “patient,” when the definitions of the noun and adjective forms of the word are combined, a more thoughtful description is achieved: a person under medical care (noun) demonstrating uncomplaining endurance under stress (adjective). Of course, radiographer frequently encounters the complaining patient as well, but it is important to remember those last 3 words-endurance under stress. The majority of patients are not members of the medical profession, they have little or no medical knowledge, and for them, simply coming to the radiology department or the hospital can be a stressful experience. Radiographer have the education and experience, hence patients trust radiographer to do what is best for them. When one considers that the word trust means to have confidence or faith in, the patient-radiographer relationship takes on a whole new perspective. It is an awesome responsibility we have for our patients, and we must do everything we can to see that the care provided to them is of the highest quality. If the value of that care is degraded, then we have an ethical obligation to”advocate” (writing or speaking in favor of or supporting) on behalf of that patient. Ethics means moral code, rules of conduct, principles, sense of duty, and conscience. When considering all of the above, one sees that radiographer are bound by rules of conduct to honor the faith and confidence placed in them and must serve as advocates in order to protect the patients entrusted to their care.

Similar work has been done on the awareness of ethical rights among radiology patients. This research project goes a step further by intending to demonstrate the awareness of Ethical code of patient rights among practicing radiographers, which will help them know the ethical code of patient rights in the radiology department.



  1. The researcher on his course of clinical posting in several occasions witnessed abuse of ethical code of patient rights by radiographers.
  2. There is perceived doubt if patient’s individual rights is still protected by practicing radiographers.


  1. To ascertain how aware radiographers are about the ethical code of patient rights.
  2. To access the reason if any; for the abuse of ethical code of patient rights by practicing radiographers.


  • It will enlighten practicing radiographers on the ethical code of patient rights.
  • It will help to reduce the incidence of abusing ethical code of patient rights by practicing radiographers.
  • It will improve patient’s corporation during radiological diagnosis.
  • It will be of help to other researchers in the related field.



This work will be limited to practicing radiographers in x-ray department in the following hospitals in Enugu metropolis.

  • University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital.
  • Park lane General Hospital.
  • National Orthopedic Hospital.


The research has small numbers of targetpopulations


H0 –There is good ethical conduct among practicing radiographers

H1-There is poor ethical conduct among practicing radiographers


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