The project is based on Construction of microcontroller vehicle speed alarm system which automatically warns the driver by activating a panic alarm which is triggered on when the driver exceeds the speed limit set in the system which also stops the alarm when the speed is reduced below the set speed limit. A speedometer system is used to monitor the speed of the car. The voltage output of the speedometer system is used to set the time the alarm comes on. The other component parts of the system are power unit which comprises of 5volts regulator and diode for reverse voltage prevention, micro controller, analog to digital converter (ADC), LED, resistors, transistors, wires and potentiometer. By proper steps, time and knowledge, one was able to couple the components together to achieve the desired functions which are stated in the various chapters of this report. This system can be used for road safety and measures taken to prevent accident caused by over speeding.
TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE
Title page i Approval page ii Dedication iii Acknowledgement iv Abstract v Table of contents vi List of figures ix List of table’s x CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the study 1 1.2 The aim and objective 2 1.3 Scope of the project 2 1.4 Project report organization 3 CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Historical background 4 2.2Speedometer 5 2.3 Voltage regulator 8 2.4Transformer 9
2.5Diodes 9 2.6The opt-coupler 11 2.7 Potentiometer 13 2.8 Transistor 14 2.9 Resistor 17 2.10 Microcontroller 19 CHAPTER THREE: SYSTEM OPERATION 3.1 Block diagram of the project 23 3.2 Circuit diagram and operation 25 CHAPTER FOUR: SYSTEM DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 4.1 Software designing 32 4.2 Calculating led resistor value 33 4.3 Constructed system circuit 34 CHAPTER FIVE: TEST OF RESULTS, PACKAGING 5.1 Testing of the individual components 36 5.2 Unit by unit testing 36 5.3 System testing 36 5.4 Integration 36
5.5 Packaging 36
CHAPTER SIX: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 6.1 Conclusion 38 6.2 Problems encountered and solutions 38 6.3 Suggestion for further improvements 38 6.4 Recommendation 38 APPENDIX A: List of system components 40 APPENDIX B: Component cost table 41 APPENDIX C: System source code 43 BIBLIOGRAPHY 55
LIST OF FIGURES
PAGE Fig1.1: A modern speedometer 2 Fig2.1: A7805 voltage regulator 8 Fig2.2: Diagram of step down transformer 9 Fig2.3: Diode and its symbol 9 Fig2.4: Diode curve graph 10 Fig2.5: Opt-isolator with phototransistor 12 Fig2.6: LED and its circuit symbol 12 Fig2.7: Potentiometer 14 Fig2.8: Transistor symbol 15 Fig2.9: Resistor and its symbol 17 Fig2.10: Resistor with colour bands 18 Fig2.11: The pin layout of the microcontroller 21 Fig2.12: Architecture of the PIC16F88 microcontroller 22 Fig3.1: Block diagram of the project 23 Fig 3.2: Flow chart 24 Fig3.3: Power supply diagram 26 Fig3.4: Hall Effect module 27 Fig3.5: LED integrated to the control unit (microcontroller) 30 Fig3.6: Complete system diagram 31 Fig4.1: Calculating LED resistor value 33
Fig4.2: System unit 34
LIST OF TABLES PAGE
Table 2.1: The data sheet 16 Table 2.2: Colour code and tolerance 17 Appendix B Component cost analysis table 41
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The dashboard instrument cluster in a car organizes a variety of sensors and gauges, including the oil pressure gauge, coolant temperature gauge, fuel level gauge, tachometer and more. But the most prominent gauge and perhaps the most important, at least in terms of how many times you look at it while driving is the speedometer. The job of the speedometer is to indicate the speed of a car in miles per hour, kilometers per hour or both. Even in late-model cars, it’s an analog device that uses a needle to point to a specific speed, which the driver reads as a number printed on a dial. As with any emerging technology, the first speedometers were expensive and available only as options. It wasn’t until 1910 that automobile manufacturers began to include the speedometer as standard equipment. One of the first speedometer suppliers was Otto Schulze Auto meter (OSA), a legacy company of Siemens VDO Automotive AG, one of the leading developers of modern instrument clusters. The first OSA speedometer was built in 1923 and its basic design didn’t change significantly for 60 years. In this project report, high lights will be on the history of speedometers, how they work and digitalization of speedometer, add-on speed checker, and what the future may hold for speedometer design, below is a pictorial overview of a speedometer.
Fig1.1: A modern speedometer.
1.2 THE AIM AND OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT
To design a digital speedometer.
Incorporate a speed monitor with respect to set threshold.
1.3 SCOPE OF THE PROJECT
Actualization of speed using analog to digital conversion technique;
Displaying the analog value in a digital format using an alphanumeric LCD display;
Entering the speed limit using keyboard built around to push to make switches (mode and adjustment keys)
Implementing hall -effect technique.
1.4 PROJECT REPORT ORGANIZATION
The chapter one is the introductory chapter of the project, chapter two highlights on the literature review of the project, chapter three highlights on the system operation chapter four circuit design and implementation, chapter five testing and results of the project, chapter six summary, recommendation and conclusion of the project non-chapter pages are: the reference page and appendix.
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