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ABSTRACT
A microcontroller-based Versatile Traffic Light Control System/Trainer
has been designed and implemented in the course of this project. The
system can control traffic lights in all types of y- and cross-junctions.
Two major aspects of the system are the hardware subsystem and the
software subsystem. Each subsystem was first broken down into simpler
parts or modules and each module was designed from first principles to
get the required functional behavior. The entire system was then
integrated into one functional unit and tested using a carefully laiddown
test plan. The versatility of the system was made possible by the
use of a microcontroller which enabled the researcher to use software to
achieve a versatile, flexible and cost-effective solution. The system can
double up as a training kit for undergraduates that are interested in
learning traffic light control system design and operation.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page………………………………………………………i
Certification……………………………………………………..iv
Approval ………………………………………………………. v
Dedication ……………………………………………………..vi
Acknowledgement …………………………………………….vii
Abstract ………………………………………………………..viii
Table of contents ………………………………………………ix
List of Tables……………………………………………………xiv
List of Figures…………………………………………………..xvi
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION…………………………………………….1
1.1 Background………………………………………………………..1
1.2 Aims and Objectives……………………………………………1
1.3 Justification……………………………………………………..2
1.4 Scope of the Work………………………………………………2
1.5 Block Diagram Overview of the Project Stage………………….3
1.6 Project Outline…………………………………………………..4
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CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW…………………………………………..5
2.1 Principles ………………………………..…………………….5
2.2 Traffic Light Technologies ………………………………7
2.2.1 Optics and Lighting…………………………………………8
2.2.2 Control Module……………………………………………….15
2.3 Application’s of Versatile Traffic Light Control System……..19
2.4 New Trends…………………………………………………..20
CHAPTER THREE
METHODOLOGY AND SYSTEM ANALYSIS……………………21
3.1 Methodologies………………………………………………..21
3.1.1 Structured Analysis and Design Method…………..………….24
3.1.2 Top-Down Decomposition……………………………………25
3.1.3 Bottom-Up Assembly…………………………………………26
3.2 Method Used In This Work……………………………………..28
3.3 The Design Process……………………………………………29
3.4 Analysis………………………………………………………..30
3.5 Limitations of the Existing Traffic with Control Systems ……32
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CHAPTER FOUR
SYSTEM DESIGN……………………………………………….33
4.1 System Specification ……………………………………….33
4.1.1 Versatility of The System…..…………………………………….33
4.1.2 Sequence of Light Changes……..…………………………..34
4.1.3 Timing Requirements of the System……..…………………36
4.1.4 Flexibility Factor…………………..………………………..36
4.2 Hardware Subsystem Design……………………………….37
4.2.1 Input Subsystem …………………………………………….38
4.2.2 The Control Subsystem……..……………………………………39
4.2.3 The Output Subsystem………………………………………44
4.3 The Software Subsystem ………..…………………………..46
4.3.1 Control Algorithms………..………………………………………49
4.4 Project Block Diagram……….……………………………..56
CHAPTER FIVE
SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION……………….……………….57
5.1 Hardware Subsystem Implementation ……….…………….57
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5.1.1 The Input Subsystem Implementation ………..…………60
5.1.2 The Control Subsystem Implementation……………………61
5.1.3 The Output Subsystem Implementation……..…………..66
5.2 Software Subsystem Implementation……………………67
5.3 Data Base Implementation……………………………….68
5.4 System Testing……………………………………………68
5.4.1 Test Plan………………………………………………….68
5.4.2 Hardware Subsystem Testing……………………………69
5.4.3 Software Subsystem Testing…………………………….70
5.5 Performance Evaluation……………………….…………71
5.6 Project Packaging…………………………….………….72
5.7 Project Costing…………………………………………..73
5.8 Project Deployment……………………………………..73
CHAPTER SIX
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION …………………………74
6.1 Summary Of Achievement……………………………..74
6.2 Problems Encountered and Solutions…………………..74
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6.3 Recommendations………………………………………75
6.4 Suggestion for further Improvement……………………76
6.5 Contribution to Knowledge………………..……………76
6.6 Conclusion………………………………………………77
REFERENCES…………………………………………78
APPENDICES………………………………………….81
Appendix A1: Full Schematic Diagram…………………81
Appendix A2: Pcb Component Layout………………….82
Appendix A3: Pcb Track Layout…………………………83
Appendix B: Source Code……………………………….84
Appendix C: Evidence of Completion…………………94
Appendix D: Operation Manual……………………….95
xiv
LIST OF FIGURES
FIG. 1: Block Diagram Overview ………………….…………………3
FIG. 3.1: Traffic Light Control System Decomposition ………………25
Fig. 3.2: The Design Loop……………………………………………….30
Fig. 4.1: Software Control Modules…………………………….………37
Fig. 4.2: Traffic Light Control Subsystem Block………………………….37
Fig. 4.3: Internal Configuration of the Microcontroller………………40
Fig. 4.4: The Microcontroller ………………………………………….43
Fig. 4.5: Display Output Circuit ……………………………………….45
Fig. 4.6: Cross Junction Traffic Flow with no Left Turn………………46
Fig. 4.7: Y-Junction Traffic Flow……………………………………….48
Fig. 4.8: Selection Process for the Software Procedure ……………….50
Fig. 4.9: Flowchart for the Operation of the Versatile
Traffic Light Control Software………………………………..51
Fig. 4.10: Program Flowchart for Cross-Junction with no Left Turn…53
Fig. 4.11: Flow Chart for Cross-Junction with Pedestal Crossing…….54
Fig. 4.12: Program Flowchart for a Y-Junction………………………..55
Fig. 4.13: Block Diagram…………………………………………………..56
Fig. 5.1: The Input Switch Panel……………………………………….61
Fig. 5.2: The At89c55 Implementing the Control Subsystem…………63
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Fig. 5.3: Differentiator Circuit………………………………………….64
Fig. 5.4: Display Output Circuit…………………………………………67
Fig. 5.5: Mechanical Drawing of Casing………………………………..72
xvi
LIST OF TABLES
Table 4:1: Characteristic Table for Cross Junction with no Left Turn……47
Table 4.2: Full Cycle Table for Cross Junction with no Left Turn…….…..47
Table 4.3: Characteristic Table for a Y-Junction……………………………48
Table 4.4: Full Cycle Table for a Y-Junction……………………………….49
Table 5: Expected Test Result/Actual Test Result………………………….69
1
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background
Most roads in Nigeria urban areas are usually congested, some all-day,
others during rush hours. It was found that larger part of this problem is
that due to congestion at road intersections. However, traffic light systems
have long been invented to control this problem. Most of these traffic
light control systems are imported thereby making them expensive.
Traditional traffic light control systems are designed to function at only a
particular type of traffic intersection. For example, a control system that
was designed for a cross-junction may not serve at T-junction.
This project work deals with a microcontroller-based traffic light
control system that has the ability to control any type of y- and crosstraffic
intersections. It is indigenous as well as versatile in its control
functions as regards y- and cross-junctions. This has the effect of
drastically reducing the design cost.
1.2 Aim and Objectives
This project aims at developing an 8051 microcontroller-based versatile
y- and cross- traffic light control system which can be deployed at road
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intersections for traffic control. It can be used as a teaching aid in schools
for various road users. The purpose of this project work is to develop a
versatile system that can control any type of cross- and y-traffic junctions
to assist and to educate the general public on automobile-automobile and
automobile-pedestal interactions at road intersections.
1.3 Justification
Since this work is indigenous, it can serve to replace the imported ones. It
can also reduce the cost of design and implementation since addition of
few instruction lines to the control program will make the control system
function at any type of road intersection. The software program for this
system can be modified to incorporate more functionality. This
system/trainer also serves as a learning aid.
1.4 Scope of the Work
This versatile traffic light control system is intended to control a wide
range of y- and cross- road intersections. In this work, we limit ourselves
to the control of the following types of traffic junctions:
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 Automobile-automobile cross-junction
 Automobile pedestrian cross-junction
 Automobile-automobile Y-junction using LEDs
 Automobile-automobile Y-junction using lamps via dc relays
This project work is flexible in that the control program can be modified
to incorporate other types of traffic junction control.
1.5 Block Diagram Overview
Fig. 1: Block Diagram Overview
As indicated in Fig. 1 above, the input subsystem comprises a switch
panel that passes input signals to the control system which in turn invokes
control algorithm from the system’s memory for its control operations.
The input signal is used to configure the system to behave as a particular
type of traffic junction controller. The user can select one out of
INPUT
SUBSYSTEM
CONTROL
SUBSYSTEM
OUTPUT
SUBSYSTEM
CONTROL
ALGORITHM
(IN MEMORY)
4
the four types of junction controls at the time of configuration prior to
installation of the panel. When used as a trainer, selection is also made in
a similar manner.
The timing signals are used to control the sequencing of light. The light
change cycles through GREEN, AMBER and RED in response to the
timing requirements of the system.
1.6 Project Outline
This project work is organized as follows: chapter one is on introduction
while chapter two deals with a review of some related literature.
Methodology and systems analysis is the subject of chapter three while
chapter four covers hardware and software design details. Chapter five is
concerned with system implementation and testing while summary and
conclusion is the subject of chapter six.

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