This project work termed “Design and implementation of an automated detection system for fish specification” is aimed providing greater efficiency, accuracy and speed in all their processing operation, good public relations and improve services to users. The software was designed to eliminate the problems found in the existing system which includes: Different authors mistakenly used different name for the same species, length of a distinct fish is also difficult to measure and some species are difficult to identify at early stage, the size and the shape of the fin of a fish are often as a clue to the identity of a species, it is very cumbersome to manually reconcile all registered species of fish from different files sources into their worksheet, wastage of time and stress due to manual operation in the system. The methodology used is Structured System Analysis and Design Methodology (SSADM) because each phase must be complete in its entirety before the next phase can begin. The choice of language adopted is Visual Basic programming language due to the flexibility they provide. The software was tested with windows 10. The result achieved is, 1) A better service that speed-up detecting species of fishes, and ensures data security by restricting access to the program and to the database, enable stress-free system for staff to easily document fish species’ report, eliminate wrong naming of fish species by some authors. 2) A system where information and output report will be produced much faster, more accurately and more detailed to the management of Iman fish pond, Nnewi, Anambra State. In summary, the project work was aimed at developing a Software that will eliminate wrong naming of fish species by some authors and safely and also will help to document and store fish species’ report, and also allows users to print-out the hard-copy of the fish species’ report.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Certification page ii
Approval page iii
Table of Contents vii-ix
CHAPTER ONE 1
- Background of the Study 1-2
- Statement of the Problems 3
- Aim and Objectives of the Study 3
- Significance of the Study 3-4
- Scope of the Study 4
- Limitations of the Study 4
- Definition of Terms 5-7
2.1 Review of Related Works 8-9
2.2 Expert System (Concepts) 9-10
2.3 Artificial Intelligence (Concept) 10-11
2.4 Overview of Database Management System 11-13
Methodologies and System Analysis 14
3.1 Methodologies 14
3.1.1 Structured System Analysis and Design Methodology 14-16
3.1.2 Object Oriented Analysis and Design Methodology (OOADM) 16
3.1.3 Prototyping 17
3.1.4 Expert System Methodology (ESM) 17
3.1.5 Methodology Use in this Project 18
3.2 System Analysis 18
3.3 Data Collection 19
3.4 Organizational Structure of Iman fish pond, Nnewi, Anambra State 20
3.5 Modus Operandi of the Present System 21
3.5.1 Input Analysis 21-22
3.5.2 Process Analysis 23
3.5.3 Output analysis 23
3.5.4 Data Flow Diagram of the present System 24-25
3.6 Problems of the present System 26
3.7 The proposed System 26
3.8 High level Model of the proposed System 27
4.0 System Design 28
4.1 Objectives of the Design 28
4.2 Data Flow Diagram of the New System 28-29
4.2.1 Expand Data Flow Diagram to show all the processes and data stores 30-31
4.3 Database Specification 32-32
4.4 Program Module Specification 33
4.5 Input and Output Specification 34-35
4.5.1 Output Specification 36
4.5.2 Input Specification and Design 37-38
4.6 Algorithm 39
4.7 System Flowchart 40
4.8 Program Flowchart 41-45
4.9 Data Dictionary 46-47
4.10 Choice of Programming Language Platform 47-48
System Implementation and Documentation
5.1 System Implementation 49
5.2 Hardware Requirements 49
5.3 Software Requirements 50
5.4 Installation Arrangements 50
5.5 Testing 50
5.5.1 Unit Testing 50
5.5.2 Test Data 51
5.5.3 Test Result 51
5.6 Training Arrangements 51
5.7 Conversion Arrangements 52
5.8 System Documentation 53-54
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations 55
6.1 Summary 55
6.2 Conclusion 55
6.3 Recommendations 56
1.1 Background to the Study
In this modern age, where information technology is changing the lives of people constantly across the globe, the computer system has become something of great importance to even the commonest of man. The number of application which computer have been put can be said to be virtually unlimited. This is no surprise, as there are no limits to the number of problems that old arise from all fields of human endeavor. In fact, any problem can be solved with a computer as long as its solution can be expressed as a logical sequence of executable steps.
Odogbo (2018) said that with the growth and popularity computer technology has received in the past few years, the only important file that computers have filed to change dramatically is education “computers have taken a major position in the world because they can execute many tasks more effectively than human. It has formed a coalition with virtually every other technology including – industrial, communication, medical office etc. computers are also applied in accounting, education, finance, health administration and military etc. the use of computers is also expensive that it would be almost impossible to form an exhaustive list.
The fish species automatic detection system is a system that can detect, at the same time distinguishes the various species of fishes. The system offers a comprehensive knowledge in detecting, recognizing and distinguishing the species of fish by first storing the images of fishes in the database, make the system to have a compatibility of receiving the image from your computer and then compare it with the existing images in the database, if match appear with the one of the images in the database, then the system will return that image with some descriptions that prove the fish else return the statement that show the invalidity of that image. The system also has a room to make some modifications or corrections in the database, in terms of the data, the images of the fishes, to delete the database of specific fish or the entire database in general.
What motivated the researcher to write this project is because of some reasons that was observed in the existing system. Some of the challenges are; time wastage: a lot of times are usually wasted using manual means to detecting species of fishes, different authors mistakenly used different name for the same species, length of a distinct fish is also difficult to measure
and some species are difficult to identify at early stage, the size and the shape of the fin of a fish are often as a clue to the identity of a species, it is very cumbersome to manually reconcile all registered species of fish from different files sources into their worksheet, lack of data integrity: due to the manual mode of keeping record, intruders enjoys ease access to the record – altering the sensitive information.
Because of the problems observed in the existing system, the used of an automated detection system for fish specification was introduced to safeguard, prevent information system from the threats associated to them. An automated detection system for fish specification was introduced so that unauthorized access or abuse of important information will be eliminated.
- Statement of the Problems
The manual means of detecting species of fishes is associated with so many in-efficiencies. The bottleneck encountered includes:
- Time wastage: a lot of times are usually wasted using manual means to detecting species of fishes.
- Different authors mistakenly used different name for the same species.
- Length of a distinct fish is also difficult to measure and some species are difficult to identify at early stage.
- The size and the shape of the fin of a fish are often as a clue to the identity of a species.
- It is very cumbersome to manually reconcile all registered species of fish from different files sources into their worksheet.
- Lack of Data integrity: Due to the manual mode of keeping record, Intruders enjoys ease access to the record, altering the sensitive information.
1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study
The main aim of this project is to design and implement an automated detection system for fish specification in Iman fish pond, Nnewi, Anambra State.
The specific objectives to achieve the aim are as follows:
- To reduce the time spent in detecting species of fishes.
- To provide a unified database to store fish species’ records.
- To eliminate wrong naming of fish species by some authors.
- To develop a stress-free system for farmer to easily identify fish species and document fish species’ information.
- To ensure data security by restricting access to the program and to the database.
- To ensure easy access and retrieval of data in the program.
- Significance of the Study
The use of an automated detection system for fish specification will go a long way to solve the problems encountered in the existing system for object detection and recognition for fish species in Iman fish pond. However, an automated detection system for fish specification will provide advantages such as stress-free system for farmer to easily identify fish species and document fish species’ information, it will help in a good number of ways to ease the process of retrieving data and records in the system. This study will serve as a useful reference material to other researchers seeking related information. Afterwards, further development can be made on the project work in accordance to the rapid development in information technology in the near future.
1.5 Scope of the Study
The scope of this study is limited to designing an automated detection system for fish specification in Iman fish pond, Nnewi, Anambra State, which will serve as a central repository for the organization.
1.6 Limitations of Study
In the course of carrying out this research work a number of problems were encountered.
- Lack of adequate fund to finance the project: this was another limitation to this work because much money is needed to carry out a detailed research work which is not easily borne by every student.
- The limited knowledge of Visual Basic programming was great challenge to this project. However, more research was made to complete this project successfully.
- Time Constraints: Looking at the interval between the resumption of the final semester, the time given is too short for collection of required information and a more comprehensive fact finding for a better work would have been done if given enough time.
1.7 Definition of Terms
Automation: It is the replacement of human workers by technology; a system in which a workplace or processes has been converted to one that replaced or ministries human labor with electronic or mechanical equipment.
Barblels: These are ‘’whiskers’’ near the mouth and are used by bottom-feeding fish to sense food.
Caudal Fin: Is used for propulsion. It varies in shape and this affects a fish’s speed and buoyancy. And are of many type e.g. forked rounder, lunate, emarginated caudal fins etc.
Data Entry: This is the standard input device through which the system gets more of the instructions and commands.
Data processing: It is defined as the entire process of converting or manipulating data into definite meaningful information (Adigwe, & Okoye, 2015).
Data Security: Data security prevents unauthorized users from viewing or updating the database by the use of passwords.
Data: This is the collections of vital information that meant to be processed.
Database Management System (DBMS): It is software which controls the flow of data and checks and checks on how data are stored.
Database: This is an organized /unique collection of related files. It is a collection of schemas, tables, queries, reports, views and other object.
Design: This is the art or process of designing how something will look, work.
Detection: The act of noticing or discovering the existence of something or the state of having been noticed or discovered.
Documentation: material that provides official information or evidence that serves as record; written specifications and information that describes the product.
Dorsal Fin: Large fin on a fish’s back that varies in shape, size and position.
Fin of Fish: Part of fish used for motion. The fin varies in shape and size.
Fish: A cold blooded vertebrate animal that lives in water. It typically has jaws, fins, scales, a slender body, a two chambered heart and gills for providing oxygen to the blood.
Gills of Fish: The organ that fish and some other water animals used to breathe.
Image: A picture or likenesses of somebody or something produce either physically by a sculptor, painter, and photographer or in the mind.
Information Management System (IMS): It is a data base and transaction/record management system that was first introduced by IBM in 1968. Since then.
Information system: A computer Information System (IS) is a system composed of people and computers that processes or interprets information. The term is also sometimes used in more restricted senses to refer to only the software used to run a computerized database or to refer to only a computer system.
Information: Information (shortened as info or info.) is that which informs, i.e. an answer to a question, as well as that from which knowledge and data can be derived (as data represents values attributed to parameters, and knowledge signifies understanding of real things or abstract concepts).
Lateral Line: The visible part of the sense organ of fishes known as the lateral line, consist of a series of marks or pits usually on each scale running along about the mid-line of each flanks and they also present on the head.
Mouth: Food and voice organ. The size and the position of the mouth indicate what a fish eats. A ventral or downward-oriented mouth, indicate that a fish feeds on insects snails along the lake bottom. A forward or upward-directed mouth indicates a fish that feeds within the water column.
Nostrils: Breathing hole in nose. Most fish have two nostrils on each side of the head in front of the eyes.
Pectoral Fin: Side fins mainly used for direction or ‘’steering’’, and sometime for slow swimming.
Pelvic Fin: Paired fins located on the belly or under pectoral fins.
Record System: The act of using a computer system to store and update information/data sequentially in order to keep file security.
Scales: Bony plate of fish. Most fish have the body, and sometimes part of the head and tail, covered by a layer of overlapping bony plates or scales which are embedded in the skin protecting the fish and reptiles.
Security: It is protection from allowing an unauthorized users from accessing certain data within the database, it protects your data/ files.
Size of Fish: Is the measurement of the fish’s length from the tip of the mouth to the tip of the tail.
Software: It is a program or a set of programs written to carry out some task in the computer, it also perform logical related programs that works together to control the hardware.
Species: A kind, sort or variety of something.
System: A group of interrelated components working together toward a common goal by accepting inputs, processing it and producing outputs in an organized transformation process.
Teeth: Whitish bony object in the mouth. The character and the position of teeth are sometimes important in the classification of fish species. The terms used to describe the positions of teeth are:
Pre–maxillary: When the teeth are situated in the front margin of the upper jaw.
Maxillary: When on sides of the upper jaw on a separate bone.
Mandible: When on the margin of the lower jaw.
Vomerine: When on the front part of the roof of the vocal cavity.
Palatine: When further back on the palate.
Pharyngeal: When they are situated in the throat.
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