Number of Pages: 26

File Size: 291 KB

File Type: MS Word & PDF

Chapters: 1 - 5




The diversity of bacteria in spent lubricant oil in 4 different auto mechanic work shop in Maiduguri metropolis The samples were collected from 3 different spot with a distance of 2m each, serial dilution was done in 107 folds, the total viable count of the bacteria was taken and bacteria species identified by gram staining. The bacteria present are bacillus and staphylococcus with bacillus being the dominant specie. These result shows great potential of microbial species in remediation of soil contaminated with petroleum product.

Key words; bacterial diversity, contaminated soil, spent lubricant oil, gramstaining, Maiduguri- Borno State


Title Page– — –i
Certification– –ii
Dedication– —
Abstract   — — —  v
Table of Content


1.0 Introduction–  — –1
1.1Statement of the Problem– — 2
1.2 Aims and Objectives– –3


2.0 Literature Review–  — -4
2.1 Soil and its its Microbial Flora– — 4
2.2 Effects of Petroleum Hydrocarbons– 5



3.0 Materials and Method — 10
3.1 Experimental site 10
3.2 Sample Collection — 10
3.3 Sterilization — — —  — 10
3.4 Experimental Procedure– 11
3.4.1 Preparation of Soil Dilution– 11
3.4.2 Experimental Procedure in Gram Staining– 11



4.0 Results and Discussion– 13
4.1 Results– — 13
4.2 Discussion– 19
5.0 Conclusion, Recommendation and Summary– —
5.1 Conclusion–
5.2 Recommendation–
5.3 Summary– –22






Internal combustion engines before they are used. They consist of Used engine oil is defined as used lubricant oils removed from the crankcase of hydrocarbons (80-90%) and performance enhancing additive (10-20%) engines oils are altered during use by vehicles, motor bikes, generators and other machinery, because of the breakdown of additives contamination with the product of combustion and the addition of metals from the wear and tear of engine. It is recognized that the major component consist of aliphatic and


aromatic hydrocarbons such as phenol,naphthalene,benzene,(a) antracene,benzo (a)preen, fluranthene,lead, cadmium and other potentially toxic metals (Jain et al..2009)


Used motor oil can cause great damage to sensitive environments and soil microorganisms substantial volumes of soil have been contaminated by used oil in many countries of the world especially industrialized nations, high concentration of aliphatic, polycyclic, aromatic, hydrocarbon and heavy metals contribute to the inherent toxicity of used engine oil (Vasquez and bertha 1989) large amount of used engine oil are liberated in to the environment. When the oil are liberated in to the environment the oil from motor cars, motor bikes and generators etc. is changed and disposed in to gutters, water drains, open vacant plots and farm lands, a common practice by motor and generator mechanics in spite of the increasing number of auto mechanics workshops in Maiduguri with their attendant indiscriminately dumping waste engine oil in the environment, we are not aware of any study that has attempt to isolate and identify bacteria present in used engine oil contaminated soil environment here in Maiduguri the present study was therefore undertaken with a view to isolating bacterial diversity in soil sample contaminated with used engine oil




The presence of these microorganisms in unnatural environment like spent engine oil polluted soil is an indication that microorganisms can adopt to changes in our environment and also they have the potential to metabolize spent engine oil as the sole source of carbon (17)and also the indiscriminate disposal of spent engine oil by auto mechanics pose serious environment challenges in Nigeria, Nigeria was reported to produce more than 87million liters of spent automobile engine oil annually and adequate attention has been given to its disposal spent auto engine contains potentially phyto-toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. It is also noted that oil in soil have deleterious effects on biological, chemical and physical properties of the soil depending on those, type of the oil and other factors.


Also reported that the microbial components of soil were usually negatively affected following oil application to the soil it is observed a shift in carbon substrate utilization patterns in soil contaminated with oil and related it to the development of hydrocarbon utilizing bacterial community it also shown that pseudomonas and bacillus microorganisms were prevalent in the soil contaminated sites, where as dramatic reduction occurred in the total microbial community due to the additions of petroleum waste sludge




The objectives are to:


  1. assess the bacterial diversity in spent lubricant oil


  1. to evaluate tolerance of bacteria to oil-polluted soil


  1. determine the potential heavy metal tolerant bacteria


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