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TABLE OF CONTENT

CONTENT                                                                                                                            Page

Title page                                                                                                                                i

Certification                                                                                                                            ii

Dedication                                                                                                                              iii

Acknowledgement                                                                                                                  iv

Table of Content                                                                                                                     v-viii

List of figures                                                                                                                         ix-x

List of tables                                                                                                                           xi-xii

Abstract                                                                                                                                  xiii

CHAPTER ONE – INTRODUCTION

1.0INTRODUCTION                                                                                    1

1.1. Physical and Chemical properties of water                                                                      2

1.1.1 Electrical conductivity of water                                                            2

1.1.2 Dissolving capacity of water                                                                                         3

1.1.3 PH of water                                                                                                       3

1.2 Distinct states at which water can exist                                                    4

1.3 Density of water                                                                                                               5

1.4 Water at Excited State                                                                                          5

1.5 Solubility of Different Materials in Freshwater                                                    6

1.6 Boiling of freshwater                                                                                7

1.6.1 Boiling point of Freshwater                                                                                           7

1.6.2 Factors that affect boiling point of a substance                                                 7

1.7 Freezing of freshwater                                                                                          8

1.7.1 Freezing point of freshwater                                                                                          9

1.8 Anomalous nature of water                                                                                              10

1.9 Water’s high heat capacity                                                                                                11

1.10 Impurities                                                                                                                        12

1.10.1 Effect of impurities on boiling point of a liquid                                                          12

1.10.2 Effect of impurities on freezing point of a liquid                                                        12

1.10.3 Sugar                                                                                                                            13

1.10.4 Salt                                                                                                                               14

1.10.5 Powdered Milk                                                                                                                        14

1.10.6 Alum                                                                                                                            15

1.10.7 Baking powder                                                                                                            15

1.10.8 CaC0₃  16

1.11 Thermodynamics                                                                                                             16

1.12 The concept of heat                                                                                                        16

1.12.1 Heat Transfer                                                                                                               18

1.12.2 Methods of heat transfer                                                                                             19

1.12.2.1 Conduction                                                                                                               19

1.12.2.2 Convection                                                                                                                20

1.12.2.3 Radiation                                                                                                                  21

1.13 Importance and significance of the work                                                                       22

1.14 Aims and Objectives of the project                                                                                23

CHAPTER TWO – LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0 INTRODUCTION                                                                                                          24

CHAPTER THREE – MATERIALS AND METHODS

3.0 INTRODUCTION                                                                                                           27

3.1 MATERIALS USED                                                                                                       27

3.1.1 Mextech Digital Thermometer                                                                                       28

3.2    METHODOLOGY                                                                                                       29

3.2.1 EFFECTS ON IMPURITIES ON FREEZING POINT OF WATER

(HEAT RETENTION)                                                                                                           29

3.2.2 EFFECTS OF IMPURITIES ON THE MELTING RATE OF

FRESHWATER (HEAT ABSORPTION)                                                                            30

3.2.3 EFFECT OF IMPURITIES ON THE BOILING POINT OF

WATER (HEAT ABSORPTION)                                                                                         30

3.2.4 EFFECT OF IMPURITIES ON THE COOLING RATE OF WATER

(HEAT RETENTION)                                                                                                           31

CHAPTER FOUR – RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

4.1       TEMPERATURE CHANGES DURING FREEZING                                            32

4.2       TEMPERATURE CHANGES DURING MELTING                                              50

4.3       TEMPERATURE CHANGES DURING COOLING                                             68

CHAPTER FIVE – CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.0 CONCLUSION                                                                                                               86

5.1 Equal concentration of all impurities                                                                                86

5.1.1 For 5grams concentration of impurities                                                                         86

5.1.2 For 10grams Concentration of impurities                                                                      87

5.1.3 For 15grams Concentration of impurities                                                                      87

5.2 Varying Concentration of the same impurity                                                                   88

5.2.1 For Varying Concentrations of Sugar                                                                            88

5.2.2 For Varying Concentrations of Salt                                                                               89

5.2.3 For Varying Concentrations of Milk                                                                             89

5.2.4 For Varying Concentrations of Alum                                                                            89

5.2.5 For Varying Concentrations of Baking powder                                                                        90

5.2.6 For Varying Concentrations of CaC0₃                                                                          90

References                                                                                                                             91

LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE                                                                                                                    PAGE

4.1       Graph of temperature against time showing changes during freezing of sugar          33

4.2       Graph of temperature against time showingchanges during freezing of salt  35

4.3       Graph of temperature against time showing changes during freezing of milk           37

4.4       Graph of temperature against time showingchanges during freezing of alum           39

4.5      Graph of temperature against time showingchangesduring freezing of

baking powder                                                            41

4.6       Graph of temperature against time showing changes during freezing of CaCO3         43

4.7       Graph of temperature against time showing changes during freezing of 5g

of different impurities                                                             45

4.8       Graph of temperature against time showingchanges during freezing of 10g

of different impurities                                                             47

4.9       Graph of temperature against time showing changes during freezing of 15g

of different impurities                                                                                     49

4.10     Graph of temperature against time showing the effect of sugar on the melting

rate of water                                                                                                                51

4.11     Graph of temperature against time showing the effect of salt on the melting

rate of water                                                                                                                53

4.12     Graph of temperature against time showing the effect of milk on the melting

milk rate of water.                                                                                                       55

4.13     Graph of temperature against time showing the effect of alum on the melting

rate of water.                                                                                       57

4.14     Graph of temperature against time showing the effectof baking powder on the

melting rate of water.                                                                          59

4.15     Graph of temperature against time showing the effectof CaC0₃ on the

melting rate of water.                                                              61

4.16     Graph of temperature against time showing the effectof 5g of different

impurities on the melting rate of water                                                                       63

4.17     Graph of temperature against time showing the effect of 10g of different

impurities on the melting rate of water.                                                                      65

4.18     Graph of temperature against time showing the effect of 15g of different

impurities on the melting rate of water.                                                                      67

4.19     Graph of temperature against time showing the effect of sugar on the cooling

rate of water.                                                                                                               69

4.20     Graph of temperature against time showing the effect of salt on the cooling

rate of water.                                                                                                               71

4.21     Graph of temperature against time showing the effect of milk on the cooling

rate of water.                                                                                                               73

4.22     Graph of temperature against time showing the effect of alum on the cooling

rate of water.                                                                                                               75

4.23     Graph of temperature against time showing the effect of baking powder on

the cooling rate of water.                                                                                            77

4.24     Graph of temperature against time showing the effect of CaC0₃ on the cooling

rate of water.                                                                                                               79

4.25     Graph of temperature against time showing the effect of 5g of different

impurities on the cooling rate of water                                                                       81

4.26     Graph of temperature against time showing the effect of 10g of different

impurities on the cooling rate of water.                                                                      83

4.27     Graph of temperature against time showing the effect of 15g of different

impurities on the cooling rate of water.                                                                      85

LIST OF TABLES

TABLE                                                                                                                                   PAGE

4.1.1    The effect of increasing concentration of sugar in the same quantity of                    32        water on the freezing point of water

4.1.2    The effect of increasing concentration of salt in the same quantity of                       34        water on the freezing point of water.

4.1.3    The effect of increasing concentration of Milk in the same quantity of                     36        water on the freezing point of water.

4.1.4    The effect of increasing concentration of Alum in the same quantity of                   38        water on the freezing point of water.

4.1.5    The effect of increasing concentration of Baking powder in the same                      40        quantity of water on the freezing point of water.

4.1.6    The effect of increasing concentration of CaC0₃ in the same quantity of                  42        water on the freezing point of water.

4.1.7    The effect of 5 grams of different impurities on the freezing point of water.           44

4.1.8    The effect of 10 grams of different impurities on the freezing point of water.         46

4.1.9    The effect of 15 grams of different impurities on the freezing point of water.         48

4.2.1    The effect of increasing concentration of Sugar in the same quantity of water         50        on the Melting rate of water.

4.2.2    The effect of increasing concentration of Salt in the same quantity of                      52        water on the Melting rate of water.

4.2.3    The effect of increasing concentration of Milk in the same quantity of water           54        on the Melting rate of water.

4.2.4    The effect of increasing concentration of Alum in the same quantity of water         56        on the Melting rate of water.

4.2.5    The effect of increasing concentration of Baking powder in the same                      58        quantity of water on the Melting rate of water.

4.2.6    The effect of increasing concentration of CaC0₃ in the same quantity of                  60        water on the Melting rate of water.

4.2.7    The effect of 5 grams of different impurities on the melting rate of water.   62

4.2.8    The effect of 10 grams of different impurities on the melting rate of water. 64

4.2.9    The effect of 15 grams of different impurities on the melting rate of water. 66

4.3.1    The effect of increasing concentration of Sugar in the same quantity of                   68        water on the Cooling rate of water.

4.3.2    The effect of increasing concentration of Salt in the same quantity of                      70        water on the Cooling rate of water.

4.3.3    The effect of increasing concentration of Milk in the same quantity of                     72        water on the Cooling rate of water.

4.3.4The effect of increasing concentration of Alum in the same quantity of           74

water on the Cooling rate of water.

4.3.5    The effect of increasing concentration of Baking Powder in the same                      76        quantity of water on the Cooling rate of water.

4.3.6    The effect of increasing concentration of CaC0₃ in the same quantity                      78        of water on the Cooling rate of water.

4.3.7    The effect of 5 grams of different impurities on the Cooling rate of water.              80

4.3.8    The effect of 10 grams of different impurities on the Cooling rate of water.            82

4.3.9    The effect of 15 grams of different impurities on the Cooling rate of water.            84

ABSTRACT

The benefit of heat absorption and retention in water cannot be overemphasized as it is majorly responsible for temperature regulation and stability in both the human body and the planet as a whole. The effect of impurities on the heat retention and absorption of freshwater was investigated with a view on identifying what impurity gave freshwater the best heat retention and absorption ability. The effect of concentrations of impurities on the heat absorption and retention capacity of water was also investigated. Two methods were used each for the determination of both heat retention and absorption of freshwater. Measured values (5g, 10g and 15g) of sugar samples was dissolved in a 100ml polypropylene beaker of water and kept in a freezer simultaneously till the solutions attained freezing point, with the temperature drop recorded at intervals of ten minutes with a digital thermometer. The beakers were removed simultaneously from the freezer with the temperature rise recorded till room temperature was attained. Measured values (5g, 10g and 15g) of sugar were each added to 100ml of water, and the solution heated to boiling point. Time taken for each sample to reach boiling point was also recorded. A cooling system was setup with the aid of a copper calorimeter and stirrer, to enable uniform temperature during the cooling process. A digital thermometer was used to record temperature drop at each ten minute interval till room temperature was attained. This was done for samples of Salt, Milk, Alum, Baking powder and CaC0₃. Graph of temperature against time was plotted using Microsoft Excel Spreadsheet, in which the rate of heat retention and absorption of freshwater was determined. The result shows that generally, impurities reduce both the heat retention and absorption capacity of water.  Also, for all concentrations of impurities subjected to the freezing process (heat retention), Baking powder gave water the best heat retention ability in a time of 2hrs 50mins and Sugar was the least in 1hr 50mins. It was also, deduced that Baking powder and Salt gave freshwater a high heat absorption rate both in a time of 1hr 10mins, while Milk took the least time in absorbing heat in 2hrs 40mins.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0       INTRODUCTION

Water is a transparent fluid which forms the world’s streams, rivers, lakes, rain, and oceans.  As a chemical compound, a single water molecule contains one atom of oxygen, and two atoms of hydrogen connected by covalent bonds.

Water covers 71% of the total Earth’s surface.96.5% of earth’s water is found in seas and oceans, 1.7% in groundwater, 1.7% in glaciers and ice caps of Antarctica and Greenland, a small fraction of water can be found in other large water bodies, and 0.001% in the air as vapor, clouds (formed of ice and liquid water suspended in air), and precipitation.Only 2.5% of the Earth’s water is freshwater, and 98.8% of that water is ice (excepting ice in clouds) and groundwater. Only less than 0.3% of all freshwater is in rivers, lakes, and the atmosphere (Gleick, P.H 1993).

Many substances dissolve in water and it is commonly referred to as the universal solvent. For this cause, water in nature and in use is rarely pure and some properties may vary from those of the pure substance. However, there are also many compounds that are essentially, if not completely insoluble in water. Pure Waterhas a boiling and melting point of 100⁰C and 0⁰C respectively.Water is the only common substance found naturally in all three common states of matter and itis essential for all life on Earth. Water makes up 55-78% of the human body, so its importance cannot be overemphasized.

 

A water molecule has no net charge because the number of positively charged protons equals the number of negatively charged electrons. However, because the hydrogen ends of the molecule have a slight positive charge and the oxygen end has a slight negative charge, it is called a polar molecule. The negative and positive ends of different water molecules slightly attract each other, forming hydrogen bonds. These hydrogen bonds are about twenty times weaker than the covalent bonds between hydrogen and oxygen.

1.1       Physical and Chemical Properties of Water

The polar nature of the water molecule and the hydrogen bonds are responsible for many of water’s unique physical and chemical properties.

1.1.1    Electrical Conductivity of Water

Most natural waters contain dissolved ions (atoms or molecules possessing a charge) derived from the water’s interaction with soil, bedrock, atmosphere, and biosphere. As a result of these ions, water is able to conduct electricity much better than it otherwise can: for example, sea waterwith its dissolved saltscan conduct electricity about 100 times more readily than distilled water. In any case, the ability of water to conduct electricity is the reason for the warning labels that appear on most electrical appliances warning consumers not to operate them near water.

The electrical conductivity (or specific conductance) of water depends on the concentration and charge of the dissolved ions (Weast, Robert C.2000). Because of this relationship, conductivity often is used as an indicator of the total dissolved solids (TDS) in the water. The TDS is an important chemical property of water that provides information regarding the water’s history of “evolution” (for instance, its movement through underground aquifers). Conductivity is only an estimate of TDS, however, because a given value of conductivity can be produced by several different combinations of ion concentration and charge.

1.1.2    Dissolving Capacity of Water

Water molecules also can be attracted to surfaces of minerals in soils and rocks. This attraction allows dissolving (dissolution) and other chemical reactions to occur so readily that water often is called the “universal solvent.” Because water can dissolve and carry a wide range of chemicals, minerals, and nutrients, it plays an essential role in almost all biological and geochemical processes.

1.1.3    PH of Water

One important chemical property of natural water that affects its ability to dissolve minerals and influence chemical reactions is its pH. The pH, which indicates the acidity of water, measures the abundance of positively charged hydrogen ions (H +), and is defined numerically as the negative logarithm of the concentration of H + ions. Because pH is measured on a logarithmic scale, the concentration of H+ ions is ten times greater in water with a pH of 5 than water with a pH of 6, for example.

Water with a pH greater than 0 and less than 7 is termed acidic; a pH equaling 7 is neutral at temperatures at the Earth’s surface; and a pH between 7 and 14 is termed alkaline (or basic). Distilled water is considered neutral, and has a pH of 7. Natural waters also can be neutral, but more often are either slightly acidic or slightly basic.

Water in some volcanic caldera lakes can be very acidic, with pH values sometimes less than 1. If a wristwatch were dropped into water this acidic, the watch would be damaged beyond recognition within minutes. Rain in unpolluted areas has a pH of about 5.6 due to the dissolution of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. This slightly acidic nature enhances rain-water’s dissolving power. In some locations, rainwater’s acidity is greatly increased (the pH is lowered) by the absorption of certain atmospheric pollutants, causing what is called acid rain.Rainwater is neutralized by chemical reactions with minerals in soils and rocks so that the pH of most streams and lakes is between about 6.5 and 8.5. Aquatic organisms often are very sensitive to the pH of water. Below a pH of about 5, most fish will die.

1.2       Distinct States at Which Water Can Exist

Water can exist in three distinct states: water (liquid), steam (gas), and ice (solid). At sea level, ice melts (solid changes to a liquid) at 0°C (32°F) and boils (liquid changes to a gas) at 100°C (212°F). The temperature at which water changes from one state to another depends on atmospheric pressure. At the elevation of Denver, Colorado, where air pressure is about 17 percent lower than at sea level, water boils at about 94°C (201°F).

Boiling hot water thrown from a cup into very cold air will almost instantly freeze in midair and create a shower of ice crystals.At sufficiently high pressures and temperatures, water and steam are no longer distinct phases, and instead comprise a supercritical fluid. The critical temperature is 374°C (705°F) and the critical pressure is 22.06 mega-pascals (3,198.70 pounds-force per square inch), or the pressure reached at a depth of 2.2 kilometers (1.4 miles) in the ocean. At those depths, of course, sea water is well below critical temperature. The hot water circulating in vents above the active volcanic system at mid-ocean ridges at the bottom of the ocean is thus a supercritical fluid.

 

1.3       Density of Water

Water is unique among common substances in that its density decreases when it freezes; that is, water goes from 1.000 gram per cubic centimeter in liquid form to 0.915 grams per cubic centimeter in solid form. As a result, water expands about 9 percent in volume when it freezes. Consequently, ice floats on lakes and rivers, and icebergs float in the ocean. This also explains the common phrase “only the tip of the iceberg,” implying that there is considerably more present than can be seen. Because of the relative densities of ice and liquid water, approximately 90 percent of the mass of ice remains hidden below water level.

In water, hydrogen bonds produce clusters of water molecules with a more open (less dense) structure than water itself. Cluster formation reaches a minimum at about 4°C (39°F). Because of this, water at 4°C is denser than water at any other temperature and will sink to the bottom in a pool or lake. In lakes, as winter air temperatures fall below freezing, this phenomenon helps to keep the lake from freezing entirely, because when the water near the surface cools to 4°C, it sinks below the crust of surface ice, which is at 0°C. As a result, water remains unfrozen at the bottom of the lake. This is the reason people with fish ponds in the northern latitudes are amazed in the spring to find their goldfish still alive even though the pond surface froze completely during the winter.

1.4       Water at Exited State

When heat is added to water, its temperature increases. Specific heat is the measure of the amount of heat or energy required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a material 1°C. The specific heat of water is 1 calorie per gram, or 4.18 joules per gram. The specific heat of water is larger than that of most other substances (about four times greater than rocks).Even more heat must be added in order to melt ice and vaporize water. The amount of heat required to melt ice is called the latent heat of fusion; its value is 80 calories per gram. The latent heat of vaporization, which is the amount of energy required to convert one gram of water to one gram of vapor at a constant temperature, is even larger—about 540 calories per gram. Thus, the amount of energy required to boil or evaporate water without changing its temperature is about five times the energy it takes to warm water from its freezing to melting point.

The amount of energy required to vaporize water and to melt ice is exactly matched by the energy released during the reverse of these processes. When 1 gram of water vapor condenses, it releases 540 calories; when 1 gram of water freezes, it releases 80 calories. As a result, large bodies of water such as oceans and lakes have a moderating effect on climate by storing (through evaporation) and releasing (through condensation) large amounts of energy as the temperature increases or decreases, respectively.

1.5       Solubility of Different Materials in Freshwater

The chemical and physical properties of water depend on the amount and composition of dissolved materials. For example, the melting point of water decreases if salt is added. For this reason, sea water can remain liquid at temperatures below 0°C (32°F), and salt is sometimes used on roads and sidewalks during the winter in order to prevent water on their surfaces from freezing.Fresh water is generally characterized by having low concentrations of dissolved salts and other totally dissolved solids. It excludes specifically seawater and brackish water although it does not include mineral-rich waters like the chalybeate springs. The term “sweet water” has been commonly used to describe fresh water compared to salt water.

 

1.6      Boiling of Freshwater

A liquid boils at a temperature at which its vapor pressure is equal to the pressure of the gas above it (Goldberg David.E 1988). The lower the pressure of a gas above a liquid, the lower the temperature at which the liquid will boil. Boiling is the rapid vaporization of a liquid, which occurs when a liquid is heated to its boiling point, the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid is equal to the pressure exerted on the liquid by the surrounding environmental pressure

1.6.1   Boiling point of Freshwater

Boiling point is the temperature at which the pressure exerted by the surroundings upon a liquid is equaled by the pressure exerted by the vapor of the liquid; under this condition, addition of heat results in the transformation of the liquid into its vapor without raising the temperature. At any temperature a liquid partly vaporizes into the space above it until the pressure exerted by the vapor reaches a characteristic value called the vapor pressure of the liquid at that temperature. As the temperature is increased, the vapor pressure increases; at the boiling point, bubbles of vapor form within the liquid and rise to the surface. The boiling point of a liquid varies according to the applied pressure; the normal boiling point is the temperature at which the vapor pressure is equal to the standard sea-level atmospheric pressure (760 mm [29.92 inches] of mercury). At sea level, water boils at 100° C (212° F). At higher altitudes the temperature of the boiling point is lower.

1.6.2 Factors that affect the boiling point of a substance

The factors that affect the boiling point of a substance include:

  1. Pressure: when the external pressure is:
  • Less than one atmosphere, the boiling point of the liquid is lower than its normal boiling point.
  • Equal to one atmosphere, the boiling point of a liquid is called the normal boiling point.
  • Greater than one atmosphere, the boiling point of the liquid is greater than its normal boiling point.

Less than one atmosphere, the boiling point of the liquid is lower than its normal boiling point.

Equal to one atmosphere, the boiling point of a liquid is called the normal boiling point.

Greater than one atmosphere, the boiling point of the liquid is greater than its normal boiling point.

  1. Types of Molecules – the types of molecules that make up a liquid determine its boiling point. If the intermolecular forces between molecules are:
  • Relatively strong, the boiling point will be relatively high.
  • Relatively weak, the boiling point will be relatively low.

1.7       Freezing of Freshwater

When a substance is changed from its liquid state to a solid state when its temperature is lowered below its freezing point. Example is when a cup of water (liquid state) is placed in a refrigerator and then changes to ice block (solid state).

 

1.7.1    Freezing point of Freshwater

Freezing point is the temperature at which a liquid becomes a solid at normal atmospheric pressure. Alternatively, a melting point is the temperature at which a solid becomes a liquid at normal atmospheric pressure.

A more specific definition of freezing point is the temperature at which solid and liquid phases coexist in equilibrium. The normal freezing point is the temperature at a substance melts (or freezes) at one atmosphere (760 torr = 760 mm Hg = 14.7 psi = 101.3 kPa) of pressure.

As with the melting point, increased pressure usually raises the freezing point. The freezing point is lower than the melting point in the case of mixtures and for certain organic compounds such as fats. As a mixture freezes, the solid that forms first usually has a composition different from that of the liquid, and formation of the solid changes the composition of the remaining liquid, usually in a way that steadily lowers the freezing point. This principle is used in purifying mixtures, successive melting and freezing gradually separating the components. The heat of fusion, the heat that must be applied to melt a solid, must be removed from the liquid to freeze it. Some liquids can be super cooled i.e., cooled below the freezing point without solid crystals forming. Putting a seed crystal into a super cooled liquid triggers freezing, whereupon the release of the heat of fusion raises the temperature rapidly to the freezing point.

Super cooling:The process of lowering the temperature of a liquid below its freezing point           without it becoming a solid.

Super heating: In physics, this is a phenomenon in which a liquid is heated to a temperature higher than its boiling point.

Heat of Fusion:This is the amount of heat (energy) required to change a gram of a substance from its solidto its liquid state, without a change in its temperature.

Heat of Vaporization:This is the amount of heat (energy) requiredto change a gram of liquid into its gaseous state at its boiling point.

1.8       Anomalous nature of water

The anomalous properties of water are those where the behavior of liquid water is quite different from what is found with other liquids .No other material is commonly found as solid, liquid and gas. Frozen water (ice) also shows anomalies when compared with other solids.(P. Ball 2008). Although it is an apparently simple molecule (H2O), it has a highly complex and anomalous character due to its intra-molecular hydrogen bonding. As a gas, water is one of lightest known, as a liquid it is much denser than expected and as a solid it is much lighter than expected when compared with its liquid form. It can be extremely slippery and extremely sticky at the same time(Connor Court, Ballarat, 2014). Many other anomalies of water may remain to be discovered, such as the possible link of water to room temperature superconductivity.

As liquid water is so common-place in our everyday lives, it is often regarded as a ‘typical’ liquid. In reality, water is most atypical as a liquid, behaving as a quite different material at low temperatures to that when it is hot. It has often been stated that life depends on these anomalous properties of water(Plenum: New York, 1985). In particular, the high cohesion between molecules gives it a high freezing and melting point, such that we and our planet are bathed in liquid water. The large heat capacity, high thermal conductivity and high water content in organisms contribute to thermal regulation and prevent local temperature fluctuations, thus allowing us to more easily control our body temperature. The high latent heat of evaporation gives resistance to dehydration and considerable evaporative cooling. Water ionizes and allows easy proton exchange between molecules, so contributing to the richness of the ionic interactions in biology. Also, it is an excellent solvent due to its polarity, high relative permittivity (dielectric constant) and small size, particularly for polar and ionic compounds and salts.

At 4 °C water expands on heating or cooling. This density maximum together with the low ice density results in

(i) The necessity that all of a body of fresh water (not just its surface) is close to 4 °C before any freezing can occur

(ii) The freezing of rivers, lakes and oceans is from the top down, so permitting survival of the bottom ecology, insulating the water from further freezing, reflecting back sunlight into space

1.9       Water’s High Heat Capacity

The capability for a molecule to absorb heat energy is called heat capacity. Water’s high heat capacity is a property caused by hydrogen bonding among water molecules. When heat is absorbed, hydrogen bonds are broken and water molecules can move freely. When the temperature of water decreases, the hydrogen bonds are formed and release a considerable amount of energy. Water has the highest specific heat capacity of any liquid. Specific heat is defined as the amount of heat one gram of a substance must absorb or lose to change its temperature by one degree Celsius. For water, this amount is one calorie, or 4.184 Joules. Heat retention refers to the amount of heat an object or material can store overtime (Camilloni and Barros, 1997).  As a result, it takes water a long time to heat and a long time to cool. In fact, the specific heat capacity of water is about five times more than that of sand. This explains why the land cools faster than the sea.

Heat capacity is an extensive property of matter, connoting that it is proportional to the size of the system (Camilloni and Barros, 1997).

1.10     Impurities

Impurities are substances inside a confined amount of liquid, gas, or solid, which differ from the chemical composition of the material or compound. Impurities are either naturally occurring or added during synthesis of a chemical or commercial product. (Cheng,  E et al 2004)

1.10.1 Effect of impurities on the boiling point of a liquid

Considering the problem in terms of entropy. The boiling point of a liquid is defined as the temperature at which the liquid and gas phases are at equilibrium. Mathematically, this means that the change in free energy from going to liquid to gas is zero . Adding a (non-volatile) impurity to the liquid phase increases the entropy of the liquid without affecting the entropy of the gas; the end result is that smaller for an impure liquid than a pure liquid. Adding an impurity to the liquid phase causes to decrease without changing . Therefore, adding an impurity to water will cause it to boil at a higher temperature. In essence, vaporization is a process that is driven by the increase in entropy associated with going from the liquid phase to the gas phase. By making the liquid phase more disordered, this gain in entropy becomes smaller, and vaporization becomes slightly less favorable.

1.10.2  Effect of impurities on the freezing point of a liquid

The presence of impurities lowers (depresses) the freezing point of a liquid. The impurities lower the vapor pressure of the solution so that ice can melt at a lower temperature. Note that the ice and solution curves intersect (see the dark blue circle on the diagram) at a lower temperature than the ice and water curves (see the light blue circle on the diagram).Sea water freezes at about -2°C, compared to 0°C for pure water. For example freezing point of water is O⁰C under normal atmospheric pressure. If we add sugar or salt to this water its vapor pressure lowers and freezing point decreases Sodium chloride (usually in the form of rock salt) is sprinkled on roads during the winter to depress the freezing point of water and reduce the likelihood of water freezing to form ice.

The properties of the following impurities used shall be discussed;

1.10.3  Sugar

The chemical formula of sugar or sucrose is C12H22O11. In other words, a molecule of sugar is made of 12 atoms of carbon, 22 atoms of hydrogen, and 11 atoms of oxygen. The chemical composition of sucrose involves two or more sugar molecules connected in a chain. The melting point of sucrose is 366.8 degrees Fahrenheit. Different kinds of sugar exists, a few of them are: glucose, fructose, galactose, lactose, sucrose, and maltose. Glucose and fructose are monosaccharide, sugars made of the smallest units of sugar. The compound known as table sugar is the sucrose. Sucrose is a disaccharide, a type of sugar made of two sugar units. Sucrose is made of glucose and fructose. The two undergo a condensation reaction, during which water is eliminated, and the result is a powdery compound. Currently, table sugar is industrially extracted from sugar cane and sugar beet. Table sugar is very nutritious. For this reason, it is largely consumed by people. It is used in cooking to give a sweet taste to food. Just one teaspoon of sugar has 16 calories. Sugar is a carbohydrate, and it has no vitamins or minerals. Since this compound is actually present as an ingredient of most foods, special care must be paid to the intake of sugar. Large quantities of sugar are dangerous for human health.

1.10.4  Table Salt

Table salt, sodium chloride (NaCl), consists of cation (which in this case is the Na+ion), the anion(which in this case is Cl). A cation is a positively charged ion, and an anion is a negatively charged ion. This is the standard format name of a salt. Other salts have similar names, reflecting their composition. Some examples are magnesium oxide (MgO) and magnesium fluoride (MgF2).

Sodium is the element with the atomic number 11. It is a highly reactive alkali metal. Sodium is the most abundant element in the crust of Earth. Chlorine is the element with the atomic number 17. It belongs to the halogen group, and it is a yellowish gas with a bad smell. It is important to notice that chlorine by itself is poisonous if ingested. However, once in the compound NaCl, chlorine loses its poisonous quality, and becomes salt, an important compound for life.

One main characteristic of table salt is that it is soluble in liquids. Not all compounds are soluble. We know that adding salt to water will lead to the salt dissolving. This is solubility.

Sodium chloride is crucial for life. We could not live without salt. Multiple bodily mechanisms function by using salts. For example, salt helps retain water in the body. At the same time, salt contains important nutrients. It is important to keep in mind that, while small quantities of salt are important for life, a large salt intake is quite dangerous for health. It can lead to high blood pressure and heart disease, even death.

1.10.5  PowderedMilk

Powdered milk is a manufactured dairy product made by evaporating milk to dryness. One purpose of drying milk is to preserve it; milk powder has a far longer shelf life than liquid milk and does not need to be refrigerated, due to its low moisture content. Milk powder contains all twenty standards amino acids and are high insoluble vitamins and minerals. The typical average amounts of major nutrients in the un reconstituted in 100 g milk are (by weight) 12,7g protein,68,2g carbohydrates (predominantly lactose), calcium 427g , potassium g, vitamins11g, Inappropriate storage conditions (high relative humidity and high ambient temperature) can significantly degrade the nutritive value of milk powder.

1.10.6Alum

They are colorless, odorless, and exist as a white crystalline powder, most alums have an astringent and acid taste. Alums are generally soluble in hot water. Its chemical formula is KAl(SO4)2 and it is commonly found in its dodecahydrate form as KAl(SO4)2.12(H2O). Alum is the common name for this chemical compound, given the nomenclature of potassium aluminum sulfate dodecahydrate. It is commonly used in water purification, leather tanning, dyeing, fireproof textiles, and baking powder. It also has cosmetic uses as a deodorant, as an aftershave treatment and as a styptic for minor bleeding from shaving. The solubility of the various alums in water varies greatly, sodium alum being readily soluble in water, while caesium and rubidium alums are only sparingly soluble.

1.10.7Baking powder

Baking powder is a dry chemical leavening agent, a mixture of a carbonate or bicarbonate and a weak acid, and is used for increasing the volume and lightening the texture of baked goods. Baking powder works by releasing carbon dioxide gas into a batter or dough through an acid-base reaction, causing bubbles in the wet mixture to expand and thus leavening the mixture.

 

1.10.8CaC0

Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3. It is formed by three main elements: carbon, oxygen and calcium. It is a common substance found in rocks in all parts of the world, and is the main component of shells of ma

rine organisms, snails, coal balls, pearls, and eggshells. It is commonly used medicinally as a calcium supplement or as an antacid, but excessive consumption can be hazardous.

1.11Thermodynamics
Thermodynamics is the study of different forms of energy, such as heat and work. Thermodynamics is made up of two main laws. The first law of thermodynamics explains conservation of energy. In a closed system energy cannot be created or destroyed, but it can be converted from one form to another. For example, chemical energy in fuel can be change to heat energy by a flame. The total amount of energy is always the same.

The second law of thermodynamics says that heat will flow from a hotter item or substance to a less warm thing. An example would be melting ice.  Heat energy from the air flows into the outer surfaces of the ice, causing those molecules to move faster.  If the molecules move fast enough, they change from the solid ice stage to the higher energy liquid stage. We say that the ice is melting

1.12 The Concept of Heat

Heat is the energy in transit from a high temperature object to a lower temperature object. An object does not possess “heat”; the appropriate term for the microscopic energy in an object is internal energy. The internal energy may be increased by transferring energy to the object from a higher temperature (hotter) object, this is properly called heating.

Heating is a dissipative process that occurs spontaneously whenever there is a suitable physical pathway between the bodies. The pathway can be direct, as in conduction and radiation, or indirect, as in convective circulation. Heat is a central concept in thermodynamics and statistical mechanics, and is also important in chemistry, engineering, and other disciplines (H. Gould, J. Tobochnik, 2010).

Heat is the transfer of kinetic energy from one medium or object to another or from an energy source to a medium or object. Such energy transfer can occur in three ways: radiation, conduction, and convection. The standard unit of heat in the International System of Units (SI) is the calorie (cal), which is the amount of energy transfer required to raise the temperature of one gram of pure liquid water by one degree Celsius, provided the water temperature is higher than the freezing point and lower than the boiling point. Sometimes the kilocalorie (kcal) is specified as a unit of heat; 1 kcal = 1000 cal. Less often, the British thermal unit (Btu) is used. This is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of pure liquid water by one degree Fahrenheit

Specific heat, also called specific heat capacity, is defined as the amount of energy that has to be transferred to or from one unit of mass (kilogram) or amount of substance (mole) to change the system temperature by one degree. Specific heat is a physical property, which means that it depends on the substance under consideration and its state as specified by its properties.

Heat is a central concept in thermodynamics and statistical mechanics, and is also important in engineering, chemistry and other disciplines (Gould and Tobochnik, 2010; Tipler and Mosca 2007)

Even in the ancient times, it was understood that light and heat are different. Fire was considered to be one of the elements, but the ancients had noticed that, while the fire burned it gave light and heat but after it subsided the embers continued to give heat. Joseph Black (1728 – 1799) was the first modern chemist to offer an explanation about heat. He noticed that a kettle filled with water and ice placed over a fire did not change in temperature till all the ice was melted. Based on his observation he suggested that heat flows like a fluid. Lavoisier was the first scientist to formalize the heat-fluid concept, into what he called the “calorific” theory. Calorific in Latin means heat. He pictured heat as a tasteless, odorless, invisible and weightless fluid, which he called calorific fluid. He also suggested that the hot bodies contain more of the calorific fluid than cold bodies.

1.12.1  Heat Transfer

Heat transfer is the exchange of thermal energy between physical systems, depending on the temperature and pressure, by dissipating heat. In physics, heating is the transfer of energy from a hotter body to a colder one, other than by work or transfer of matter (Ricardo, 2012) .The fundamental modes of heat transfer are conduction or diffusion, convection and radiation. Heat transfer always occurs from a region of high temperature to another region of lower temperature. Heat transfer changes the internal energy of both systems involved according to the First Law of Thermodynamics which states that “When energy passes, as work, as heat, or with matter, into or out from a system, its internal energy changes in accord with the law of conservation of energy.” The Second Law of Thermodynamics defines the concept of thermodynamic entropy, by measurable heat transfer.

1.12.2 Methods of heat transfer

Heat can travel from one point to another in three ways: Conduction, Convection and Radiation. The three methods are explained below.

1.12.2.1 Conduction

Conduction is the transfer of heat between substances that are in direct contact with each other. The better the conductor, the more rapidly heat will be transferred. Metal is a good conductor of heat. Conduction occurs when a substance is heated; particles will gain more energy, and vibrate more. These molecules then bump into nearby particles and transfer some of their energy to them. This then continues and passes the energy from the hot end down to the colder end of the substance.

If a hot body is brought in conducting contact with a cold body, the temperature of the hot body falls and that of the cold body rises, and it is said that a quantity of heat has passed from the hot body to the cold body (Partington J.R, 1949).

Conduction in solids and liquids operates by part of the kinetic energy of one particle being passed to its immediate neighbor. In simple terms the bonds between neighboring atoms and molecules in a solid can be thought of as elastic links; as one particle vibrates it causes the next in .the line to vibrate also. This process repeats, particle after particle allowing thermal energy to be passed from the hot face of a body to the cold face. In the case of liquids however their ability to flow means that in most cases convection is a more significant method of heat transfer.

Conduction in metals operates very differently. In a metal ‘valence’ electrons are free to move through the body of the metal. These are the same electrons that are responsible for electrical conduction. At the hot face of the metal the valence electrons gain kinetic energy and rapidly spread through the whole of the metal. There is a simple link between electrical and thermal conductivity in metals, this is the Wiedemann-Franz Law. It states that the thermal conductivity k of a metal should be proportional to its electrical conductivity σ(the inverse of its resistivity ρ), any difference is due to the contribution made by the metal ions acting like an ordinary, non-metallic, solid. Due to the effects of their impurities the values for alloys, e.g. steel and bronze, are a little more complicated. In conclusion, heat by conduction takes place when two material media or objects are in direct contact, and the temperature of one is higher than the temperature of the other. The temperatures tend to equalize; thus the heat conduction consists of a transfer of kinetic energy from the warmer medium to the cooler one. An example is the immersion of a chilled human body in a hot bath.

1.12.2.2           Convection

It is the transfer of heat by the physical movement of the medium itself. Convention occurs in liquids and gases but not in solids. Convection operates when a fluid (a liquid or gas) is heated resulting in a change in density. Usually the fluid will expand on heating and so become less dense. The difference in density with the surrounding fluid leads causes the fluid to flow, carrying thermal energy with it.

Convection is by far the hardest form of heat transfer to produce theoretical models for. The rate of heat flow is affected not only by the temperature differences involved but also the viscosities and rates of thermal expansion of the fluid and size, shape and surface texture of any objects in contact with the fluid (such as the heater).

Heat loss by convection requires that there be a fluid that changes its density when heated. Furthermore there must be a gravitational field (or an equivalent acceleration) so that the density difference can produce movement. Finally the fluid must be free to move in the direction that the density difference is trying to drive it.

One example where heat loss by convection breaks down is when a lake freezes over. As the water at the exterior of the lake cools it contracts and falls to the bottom of the lake. However this only works down to about 4 °C, below this point the water begins to expand again and so does not sink. This, now buoyant, water continues to float at the surface until it freezes (expanding still further). The result is that a lake freezes from the top down. All the water below the ice is at a temperature between 0 °C (at the top) and 4 °C (at the bottom). Heat transfer through this water can only continue through conduction.

1.12.2.3           Radiation

In Radiation, the hotter body loses heat, and the colder body receives heat by means of a process occurring in some intervening medium which does not itself thereby become hot.(Maxwell J.C, 1871).

Radiation is the transfer of heat by means of electromagnetic waves. To radiate means to send out or spread from a central location. Whether it is light, sound, waves, rays, flower petals, wheel spokes or pain, if something radiates then it protrudes or spreads outward from an origin. The transfer of heat by radiation involves the carrying of energy from an origin to the space surrounding it. The energy is carried by electromagnetic waves and does not involve the movement or the interaction of matter. Thermal radiation can occur through matter or through a region of space that is void of matter (i.e., a vacuum). In fact, the heat received on Earth from the sun is the result of electromagnetic waves traveling through the void of space between the Earth and the sun.

Thermal radiation otherwise known as infrared radiation is a type of electromagnetic radiation that involves waves. No particles are involved, unlike in the processes of conduction and convection, so radiation can even work through the vacuum of space. This is why we can still feel the heat of the Sun, although it is 150 million km away from the Earth. Some surfaces are better than others at reflecting and absorbing infrared radiation.

1.13       IMPORTANCE AND SIGNIFICANCE OF THE WORK

  • Heat absorption and retention of water makes it a heat sink. Conversely, it can also be a cold sink. This is why on a hot summer day the water in a lake stays cool even though the air above it (which has a low heat capacity) heats quickly, and why the water stays warm at night after the air has cooled.
  • The large amount of water on Earth makes extreme temperature changes rare compared to other planets. This is due to the high heat absorption and retention of water
  • Were it not for the high heat capacity of water, our bodies (which also contain a large amount of water) would be subject to a great deal of temperature variation. Humans can control or regulate their body temperature due to the high heat absorption and retention capacities of water.

1.14     AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT

The main aim of this research work is to study the effect of impurities (Sugar, salt, Powdered milk, Alum, Baking powder, and CaC0₃) on the heat absorption and heat retention of water.

Additional objectives includes:

  • Studying the effect of varying concentration of the same type of impurity on the heat retention and absorption of water.
  • Studying the effect of the same concentration of different impurities on the heat retention and absorption of water, and determining the impurity that makes water the best and least retainer of heat.

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