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ABSTRACT

This work presents a detailed geology of Enugu-Ngwo and environs. The study area is bounded by latitudes 7o23’N and 7o30’N and longitude 7o23’E and 7o30’E.The area extent covers approximately 167.7km. Three distinct formations such as Enugu Shale, Mamu Formation and Ajali Formation are exposed in the area.

The Enugu Shale is carbonaceous, fissile, grey and jointed with beds of siltstone and clay. The Mamu Formation contains a distinctive assemblage of sandstone, Shale, mudstone and sandy shale with coal seams at several horizons. Field measurement shows that it has average dip amount of about 5.6o in the south western direction and average strike direction of about 126oAzimuth. Results from sieve analysis show that Mamu Formation is moderately well sorted to moderately sorted, coarse skewed to strongly fine skewed and very leptokurtic to extremely lepkurtics. The plastic and liquid limit test show that the shale has plasticity of 19% and liquid limit of 29%.

The Ajali Sandstone is white in colour and some places iron stained. It consists of friable, poorly sorted, fine to coarse grained sandstone and lies conformably on the Mamu Formation. It is a good aquifer to the study area. Field measurement shows that it has average dip amount of about 6.25o in the southwestern direction and average strike direction of about 5.6o Azimuth.

Results from sieve analysis show that Ajali Sandstone is poorly sorted, coarse skewed to nearly symmetrical, and very platykurtic to mesokurtic. The hydrochemical analysis of some of the surface water shows that the water is not fit for human consumption but could be used for other purposes. Among the sedimentary structures present in the area are cross bedding, laminae, joints, faults and biogenic structures. The area has a dendntic drainage pattern and has a high potential for groundwater as well as surface water supply. A significant geologic deposit found in the study area is coal. Others are sandstone, laterite, ironstone, shale and fire clay.

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        i

Certification        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        ii

Dedication                    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        iii

Acknowledgements     –        –        –        –        –        –        iv

Abstract     –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        vi

Table of Content                   –        –        –        –        –        –        viii

List of figures      –        –        –        –        –        –        –        xii

List of tables       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        xv

List of plates       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        xvii

 

CHAPTER ONE

  • Location –        –        –        –        –        –        –        1

1.1    Accessibility        –        –        –        –        –        –        1

1.2    Objective and Scope of study       –        –        –        2

1.3    method of Investigation        –        –        –        –        3

1.3.1 Desk study          –        –        –        –        –        –        3

1.3.2 Reconnaissance survey      –        –        –        –        4

1.3.3 Detailed Geologic Survey    –        –        –        –        4

1.3.4 Laboratory studies      –        –        –        –        –        5

1.4    Problems encountered         –        –        –        –        5

1.5    Precautions        –        –        –        –        –        –        6

1.6    Literature Review        –        –        –        –        –        7

CHAPTER TWO

2.0    Geomphology of the study Area   –        –        –        11

2.1    Topography        –        –        –        –        –        –        11

2.2    Climate and Vegetation        –        –        –        –        12

2.3    Drainage   –        –        –        –        –        –        –        13

2.4    Weathering         –        –        –        –        –        –        14

2.5    Erosion      –        –        –        –        –        –        –        14

CHAPTER THREE

3.0    General Geology         –        –        –        –        –        16

3.0.1 Geological History and Tectonics          –        –        –        16

3.0.2 Basin fill     –        –        –        –        –        –        –        17

3.0.3 Regional sedimentation pattern in the study area   18

3.1    Geology of the study area   –        –        –        –        18

3.1.1 Description of Lithologic Units       –        –        –        20

3.1.1.1 Enugu shale    –        –        –        –        –        –        20

3.1.1.2Mamu Formation       –        –        –        –        –        20

3.1.1.3 Ajali Sandstone        –        –        –        –        –        28

3.1.1.4 Subsuface Lithostatgraphy        –        –        –        35

3.2    Structural Geology      –        –        –        –        –        37

3.2.1 Primary Sedimentary Structures   –        –        –        38

3.2.2 Secondary Sedimentary Structures       –        –        40

3.3    Grain Size Analysis     –        –        –        –        –        42

3.3.1 Statistical Size Subtraction Analysis      –        –        43

3.3.2 Summary of the Sieve Analysis Data    –        –        59

3.4    Plastic and Liquid Limit Test          –        –        –        60

3.4.1 Plastic Limit Test –       –        –        –        –        –        60

3.4.2 Liquid Limit Test          –        –        –        –        –        –        62

CHAPTER FOUR       

4.0    Hydrogeology and Environmental Geology    –        66

4.1    Hydrogeology     –        –        –        –        –        –        66

4.1.1 Surface Water Hydrology     –        –        –        –        66

4.1.2 Groundwater Hydrology       –        –        –        –        67

4.2    Hydrogeochemistry     –        –        –        –        –        70    

4.2.1 PH     –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        71

4.2.2 Hardness            –        –        –        –        –        –        71

4.2.3 Iron   –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        72

4.2.4 Coliform count    –        –        –        –        –        –        72

4.2.5 Manganese        –        –        –        –        –        –        73
4.3    Environmental Geology        –        –        –        –        77

4.3.1 Weathering         –        –        –        –        –        –        77

4.3.2 Geotechnic         –        –        –        –        –        –        78

4.3.3 Erosion      –        –        –        –        –        –        –        78

4.3.3.1 Erosion Control Measure –        –        –        –        79

4.3.4 Quarry       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        80

4.3.5 Pollution and Contamination         –        –        –        –        81

CHAPTER FIVE  

5.0    Economic Geology      –        –        –        –        –        83

5.1    Coal –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        83

5.1.2 Important of Coal Mining      –        –        –        –        85

5.1.3 Coal as a Source Rock        –        –        –        –        –        86

5.2    Shale and Clay –        –        –        –        –        –        86

5.3    Sandstone/sands                  –        –        –        –        88

5.4    Laterites    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        89

Summary and Conclusion   –        –        –        –        90

Summary            –        –        –        –        –        –        90

Conclusion         –        –        –        –        –        –        92

References         –        –        –        –        –        –        93

LIST OF FIGURES

Fig. 1Geologic map of Enugu – Ngwo and Environs 
Fig. 2Accessibility map of the study area 
Fig. 3Map of Enugu showing the study area 
Fig. 4Diagram showing cross a section of Enugu Escarpment 
Fig. 5Map showing wet season winds and rainfall 
Fig. 6Map showing dry season winds and rainfall 
Fig. 7Map of Nigeria showing natural vegetation 
Fig. 8Map showing the drainage pattern of the area 
Fig. 9Tectonic map of southeastern Nigeria during the Albian – Santonian 
Fig. 10Tectonic map of southeastern Nigeria during the campanian to Eocere 
Fig. 11Geological sketch map of Eastern Nigeria 
Fig. 12Diagram showing a section of Mamu formation around Milliken Hill Enugu – Ngwo 

23

Fig. 13Outcrop section of Mamu at Ekulu River 

25

Fig. 14Outcrop section of Mamu Formation along Enugu-Onitsha expressway 

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Fig. 15Outcrop section of Mamu along PRODA road26
Fig. 16Outcrop section of Ajali Sandstone at Abor29
Fig. 17Outcrop section of Ajali Sandstone along Enugu Onitsha Expressway 

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Fig. 18Roadcut of Ajali Sandstone along Enugu – Onitsha express way 

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Fig. 19Outcrop section of Ajali Sandstone near oche stream34

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1Depositional cycles in the Southeastern Nigerian Sedimentary basin. 

19

Table 2Classification of the formations19
Table 3Scale and Description of sorting44
Table 4Scale and description of skew ness46
Table 5Sieve analysis result from sample I of Mamu Formation47
Table 6Interpretation of result49
Table 7Sieve analysis result of sample 249
Table 8Interpretation of result50
Table 9Sieve analysis result of sample 3 from Ajali Sandstone52
Table 10Interpretation of result53
Table 11Sieve Analysis Result of Sample 4 from Ajali Sandstone56
Table 12Interpretation of Result58
Table 1 3Summary of Sieve Analysis59
Table 14Plastic Limit result61
Table 1 5Liquid limit result63
Table 16Aquifer Parameter within the Ajali Sandstone and Mamu Formation69
Table 1 7WHO Standard for Drinking water73
Table 18Results of Water Analysis75

LIST OF PLATES

Plate 1:      Mamu Exposure showing the coal seam at Onyeama Mine

Plate 2:      Ekulu River one of the Main Rivers in the study area

Plate 3:      An exposure of Mamu Formation along Enugu-Onitsha express way.

Plate 4:      Mine dump at Onyeama Mine as a source of surface water contaminate.

Plate 5:      Water seepage from Mamu Formation along Enugu-Ngwo road.

Plate 6:      Seam 2 of Okpara Coal Mine

Plate 7:      Vegetation of the study area

Plate 8:      Outcrop of Mamu Formation showing lamination along Enugu-Onitsha express way.

Plate 9:      Underground mining system at Okpara Mine.

Plate 10:    Quarry site at Akwuke along Okpara mine showing also the topography.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.0 Location

The study area is located in Enugu state, Nigeria, and lies between latitudes 6o23’N and 7o23’N; and longitude 7o23’E and 7o30’E.It is situated on the edge of the escarpment and has an area extent of approximately 167.7km2 .It covers Enugu-Ngwo,Ngwo-Uno, 9thMileConer, Ameke-Ngwo,Etiti-Ngwo,Okwojo-Ngwo,Amachala-Ngwo, Ukaka-Ngwo,Iva Valley,Uboji-Ngwo,Enugu town, Ogbete, Akwuke, parts of Nsude,Eke,Abor and Ebe.

 

1.1    Accessibility

The major routes that enhance accessibility to the area are the old Enugu-Ngwo – Enugu road, ENUGU – Onitsha expressway, old Nsukka road, road to Okpara and Onyeama Coal mine, and road to Ameke brewery. Several other secondary roads and footpaths created by villagers which make movement easier also exist. Figure     show the accessible map of the study area.

 

1.2    Objectives and Scope of Study

The objective of this thesis is to study the detailed geology of the study area with respect to the litology, structural features, stratigraphy, and assessment of viable economic deposits. It embraces the study of sedimentological and petrographic characteristics of the rocks and the hydrogeology of the study area. The objectives also include the production of detailed geologic map of the area. The geography (climate, vegetation, topography) and the associate environmental hazards are evaluated and suggestions are made to effect hazard control.

 

  • Method of Investigation

The method of investigation involves four stages, namely: desk study, reconnaissance survey, detailed geologic survey and laboratory analysis.

 

1.3.1 Desk Study

This involves the consultation of available journals, bulletin, reports and relevant materials about the study area. This exercise was done in the geological science department library, Nnamdi Azikiwe Univerity, Awka, Enugu State University and University of Nigeria, Nsukka.The topographic map of the area was also studied. All these provided hints on the location, boundary, extent and access to the area.

 

  • Reconnaissance Survey

A reconnaissance survey of the area was embarked few days to the detailed study, .During this exercise, a formal notification letter was given to the traditional rulers of the surrounding towns. Also, an insight about the accessibility, lithology, drainage pattern and topography of the area was gained.

 

1.4.3 Detailed Geologic Survey

A topography map 1: 25000 of the study area was used for the detailed geologic survey. During the study, lithologic units and boundaries were delineated based on changes in vegetation, topograghy, soil colour, and rock type. Strike and dip of beds and structures were measured on the outcrops, while rock samples were collected from the field for laboratory analyses. Each of the samples collected from the outcrop locations was appropriately labeled and named. Detailed measurement of outcrops as well as detailed description and sketches of these outcrops and structures were made. Photograph of important geologic features were taken for reference purposes.

The field instruments used during the study include: brunton compass, geologic harmer, tapes, sample bags, camera, field notebook, writing materials and ruler.

1.3.4 Laboratory Studies                                         

The laboratory analysis carried out include: grain size analysis, hydrogeochemical analysis, plastic and liquid limit test. The grain size analysis was carried out on four samples collected from Mamu Formation and Ajali Sandstone. Two samples from each of the formations were analyzed. From the grain size analysis, sorting, skewnes.kurtosis, grain size distribution and environment of deposition were determined. Hydrochemical analysis was carried out on some of the water samples collected from surface water of the area at WATSAN Awka, Anambra state.  Plastic and liquid limit test were carried out the shale collected from the Mamu Formation to determine the plasticity and liquid limit.

 

  • Problems Encountered and Possible Errors

The task of moving across thick vegetation and crossing streams and rivers in order to measure the dip, strike and thickness of beds was problematic during the study. The prevalent weather condition during the period of the study also imposed big problem as the work was often interrupted by rainfall. The problem of tracing the lithologic boundaries due to thick vegetation was also encountered. The scarcity of outcrops of Enugu Shale made difficult the measurement of dip and strike and laboratory study of the formation.

 

  • Precautions

Care was taken to ensure that the samples (rocks and waters) collected from different locations of the study area were not mixed up by rebelling them properly at the point of collection. The dip and strike amount and direction of the studied outcrops were also recorded on site. The boundary between the formations were traced far inside the bush to guard against confusion between the road construction materials and the true lithology. In both field and laboratory study, sensitive instruments were used. Thus, the good working condition of instruments such as brunton compass clinometer, weighing balance and sieve sets were confirmed before use. The samples were also guarded against contamination before the laboratory analysis was carried out.

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