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ABSTRACT
The study explored the influence of location and gender on
performance of some selected motor skills among Secondary
Schools in Awka South Local Government Area. The population of
the study involved all male and female Secondary Schools
students in urban and rural areas of Awka South Local
Government, Anambra State. Four schools out of eighteen schools
were used for the study. Two schools are from Urban while the
other two are from rural. Two hundred subjects made of hundred
boys and hundred girls were used for the study. Multi-phase
sampling was adopted in selection. The study posed three research
questions and three hypotheses. Data were collected with a
battery of tests developed by Barrow (1987). Tests used for the
study include: 50 metres dash, standing broad jump and 10
metres shuttle run. Stop watches and a measuring tape were used
to collect data with the help of research assistants. t-test was used
in testing the null hypotheses. The result revealed that urban
male students performed better than rural male students in 50
metres dash, and 10 metres shuttle run, but rural male excelled in
standing broad jump. Rural female students performed better than
urban female students in 50 metres dash and 10 metres shuttle
run while urban female students excelled in standing broad jump.
Furthermore, male students performed better than female student
in standing broad jump and 10 metres shuttle run and female
students excelled only in 50 metres dash. The study provided the
coaches and physical educators opportunity to create awareness of
the importance and value of physical education in rural areas. One
of the recommendations was that placement of students and staff
in secondary schools should be done randomly so that there will be
an even distribution of both high and low achievers in all schools.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page – – – – – – – i
Approval Page – – – – – – – ii
Certification – – – – – – – iii
Dedication – – – – – – – – iv
Acknowledgements – – – – – – – v
Abstract – – – – – – – – vii
Table of Contents – – – – – – – viii
List of Tables – – – – – – – xi
List of Appendices – – – – – – – xiii
Chapter One
Introduction – – – – – – – 1
Background of the Study – – – – – 1
Statement of the Problem – – – – – 4
Purpose of the Study – – – – – 5
Significance of the Study – – – – – 6
Scope of the Study – – – – – 7
Research Questions – – – – – 8
Hypotheses – – – – – – 8
ix
Chapter Two
Review of Related Literature – – – – 10
Motor Skill Performance – – – – – 10
Gender and Motor Skill Performance – – – 20
Rural Students and Motor Skill Performance – 26
Urban Students and Motor Skill Performance – 30
Summary of Related Literature – – – 37
Chapter Three
Methods – – – – – – – 42
Research Design – – – – – – 42
Area of the Study – – – – – – 43
Population of the Study – – – – – 43
Sample and Sampling Technique – – – 44
Instrument for Data Collection – – – – 44
Pilot Test – – – – – – – 45
Method of Data Collection – – – – 47
Method of Data Analysis – – – – – 48
Chapter Four
Presentation and Analysis of Data – – – 50
Summary of Major Findings – – – – 65
x
Chapter Five
Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendations – 67
Conclusion – – – – 71
Recommendation – – – – 72
Educational Implications – – – – 73
Suggestion for Further Research – – – 74
References – – – – – – 75
xi
LIST OF TABLES
Page
1. Means X and Standard Deviation (SD) of Urban and
Rural Girls Performances in 50 metres Dash,
Standing Broad Jump and 10 metres Shuttle Run. 51
2. Means X and Standard Deviation (SD) of Rural and
Urban Boys’ skill Performances in 50 metres Dash,
Standing Broad Jump and 10 metres Shuttle Run. 53
3. Means X and Standard Deviation (SD) of Boys and
Girls skill Performances in 50 metres Dash, Standing
Broad Jump and 10 metres Shuttle Run. 55
4. Summary of t-test on Effect of Location on Girls’
Performance in 50 Metres Dash. 57
5. Summary of t-test on Effect of Location on Girls’
Performance in Standing Broad Jump. 58
6. Summary of t-test on Effect of Location on Girls’
Performance in 10 Metres Shuttle Run. 59
7. Summary of t-test on Effect of Location on Boys’
Performance in 50 Metres Dash. 60
8. Summary of t-test on Effect of Location on Boys’
Performance in Standing Broad Jump. 61
xii
9. Summary of t-test on Effect of Location on Boys’
Performance in 10 Metres Shuttle Run. 62
10. Summary of t-test on Boys’ and Girls’ Performance
in 50 Metres Dash. 63
11.Summary of t-test on Boys’ and Girls’ Performance
in Standing Broad Jump. 64
12.Summary of t-test on Boys’ and Girls’ Performance
in 10 Metres Shuttle Run. 65
xiii
LIST OF APPENDICES
Page
1. List of Secondary Schools in Awka South Local
Government Area and Their Population. 81
2. Urban Schools and Rural Schools. 82
3. Letter of Permission from My Supervisor. 83
4. Schools Sampled for the Study. 84
5. I) The Skill Performance of Urban and Rural Girls
in 50 Metres Dash, Standing Broad Jump and 10
Metres Shuttle Run.
II) The Skill Performance of Urban and Rural Boys
in 50 metres Dash, Standing Broad Jump and
10 metres Shuttle Run.
III) The Skill Performance of Boys and Girls in 50
Metres Dash, Standing Broad Jump and 10
Metres Shuttle Run.
6. Computation of t-test for Urban and Rural Girls
for Effects of 50 metres Dash, Standing Broad
Jump and 10 metres Shuttle Run.
7. Computation of t-test For Urban and Rural
Boys for Effects of 50 metres Dash, Standing
Broad Jump and 10 metres Shuttle Run.
8. Computation of t-test for Boys and Girls for
Effects of 50 metres Dash, Standing Broad
Jump and 10 metres Shuttle Run.
94
1
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
Movement is a fundamental characteristic of human
behaviour. It is also an act of moving part of the body;
example hand. It is an act of moving from one place to
another, for instance enemy troop movement and to allow
free movement of goods and services. Thomas and Thomas
(2000) observed that motor behaviour is the subdiscipline of
kinesiology that focuses on how motor skills are acquired and
controlled across the lifespan. Even before birth, the infant
starts his movement by pushing and kicking while in the
womb. Siendentop (2007) supported by defining motor skill
as muscular actions directed toward the achievement of a
goal, resulting from experiences or practice. Cratty (1973)
stated that human activities which required the coordination
of these muscular movements for instance, reaching,
grasping and moving objects with eyes are acquired very
early but appeared to be determined largely by response
pattern that are innate. In buttressing this, Bucher (1979)
outlined a number of factors that are necessary for effective
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motor skill. These include age, gender, environment, physical
fitness and others.
Singer (975) classified some motor skills as fine and
others as gross. Gross involve the large muscle groups a
great deal activity that takes place in the large muscles are
sport skills activities of all kinds such as handball, athletics,
lifting. While fine involve those in which smaller muscles are
employed, examples are singing, typing, writing sentences
and stories. Matthew (1978) asserted that motor
performance tasks are further classified into continuous task
versus discrete tasks. Continuous task is one that requires
the individual to make continuous adjustments and correction
to a combination of stimuli; while discrete task is the
measurement of reaction time. Another performance task is
close-loop versus open-looped. A closed-loop skill is one that
depends upon internal feedback from the muscles as guiding
stimuli. Examples are performed with the eyes closed, test in
the air while blindfolded would constitute a closed-loop skill.
The rapid free-hand drawing of a large circle on the
blackboard comes close to bring a closed-loop skill since the
movement is not adjusted of the line as it is being drawn.
Open-loop characteristics responses are influenced to a
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greater or lesser degree by external stimuli. The printing of
letters is obviously largely influenced by the stimuli provided
by the lines as they appear on paper. Catching a ball,
jumping a hurdle, making a dive are athletic skills that are
obviously dependent upon the presence of external
stimulation for their proper and precise performance.
Henley and East (1982) asserted that because of the
differences between men and women in body structure and
physiological capacities, women often cannot perform at the
same level of strength, muscular endurance. Environment in
this setting is categorized as rural and urban. The rural
environment is the smaller country side area. The urban area
on the other hand means belonging or relating to a town or
city (British Broadcasting Company, English Dictionary, 1992)
and Standard English Dictionary, 1990). In the rural schools,
there is persistence of inequality in educational opportunities
of which physical education programme is one. There are
very poor records of developing athletes in some of these
rural schools. In urban schools, there are modern amenities
such as nice laboratory, library, sports equipment, sports
facilities and many others. Hence, the students in urban
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schools may be more opportune in a way than those in the
rural schools (Aigbomian, 1997).
Consequently, school environment whether rural or
urban may affect academics as well motor skill performance.
Bidwell and Kasarda (1995) stated that the environment has
a substantial influence on the school programme. However,
the question of ascertaining the differential influence of the
rural on motor skill performance remains an unfinished task.
It remains beneficial to study on the influence of gender and
location on the performance of selected motor skills among
secondary school students in Awka South Local Government
Area of Anambra State.
Statement of the Problem
Sports performance involves the learning of motor skills.
Hence, for the players to be proficient in different fields of
sports, they must learn some necessary skills in each of the
sport of their interest. Furthermore, the researcher
observation in teaching some movement exploration and
body mechanics exercise to primary school pupils reveals that
boys have more desire to learn faster and perform better
than girls. A lot of factors were observed that contributed to
5
having desire or not to learn and perform motor skills for
these primary school pupils. These include physical fitness,
body structure, age, location of the school and gender. Based
on these phenomena the researcher is forced to carry out the
research on secondary school students. Specifically the study
tried to investigate the effect of the gender and location on
motor skill performances of activities involving speed, power
and agility. There are various activities involving speed,
power and agility. They include throw for distance, zigzag or
dodging run, standing broad jump, 50 meter dash, hop in and
out of hoops, 10 meters shuttle run. Even though we can test
all but the researcher wish to use 50 meters dash, standing
broad jump and 10 meters shuttle run because the students
are using them frequently.
Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of the study was to find out the
influence of gender and location on performance of selected
motor skills, such as 50 metres dash, standing broad jump
(SBJ) and 10 metres shuttle run. Specifically, the researcher
intended to:
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1. Find out the girls performances in 50 metres dash,
standing broad jump, 10 metres shuttle run in urban
and rural areas
2. Find out the boys performances in 50 metres dash,
standing broad jump and 10 metres shuttle run in
urban and rural areas.
3. Determine the differences in the boys and girls
performances in 50 metres dash, standing broad jump
and 10 metres shuttle run.
Significance of the Study
This study is significant in many ways: for instance, it
would enable the physical educators and coaches to identify
how urban and rural areas influence performance in selected
motor skills.
The study would aid the coaches, physical educators
and researchers to determine differences of boys and girls on
performance of selected motor skill. It would assist the
coaches and physical education instructors to have the
knowledge of the effect of gender on the performance of
selected motor skill. The result of the finding would provide
guides for selection of appropriate motor skills so as to
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enhance the standard of sport performance in both rural and
urban areas. The study will help in creating awareness to the
coaches, physical education instructors games-metres and
mistresses on the importance and value of motor skill
performance in the rural areas. This study would also help
school principals in rural areas in soliciting for government aid
in providing needed equipment for motor skill learning.
Finally, this research work would also serve as a guide,
resource material, and reference material to other students
who may wish to undertake a research on this very topic or
related topic in future.
Scope of the Study
There are various factors responsible for motor skills
performance, such as, location, gender, maturation, age,
heredity, motivation, and physical fitness. Among these
factors, the study focuses on location and gender. In addition,
there are so many secondary schools in Awka South Local
Government Area. The study concentrated on two secondary
schools from urban and two from rural areas. They include:
St John of God Awka, Igwebuike Grammar School, Awka,
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Girls’ Secondary School, Umuawulu and Emeka Aghasili
Secondary School, Nise.
Research Questions
1) Is there a difference in the influence of location on girls
performance in 50 meters dash, standing broad jump
and 10 meters shuttle run?
2) Is there a difference in the influence of location on boys
performance in 50 meters dash, standing broad jump
and 10 meters shuttle run?
3) Are there differences in boys and girls performances in
50 meters dash, standing broad jump and 10 meters
shuttle run?
Hypotheses
1) There is no significant difference in girls performances in
50 meters dash, standing broad jump and 10 meters
shuttle run due to influence of location of the school and
gender.
2) The boys performances in 50meters dash, standing
broad jump and 10meters shuttle run do not differ
9
significantly due to effect of location of the school and
gender.
3) There is no significant difference in 50meters dash,
standing broad jump and 10meters shuttle run due to
location of school and gender.

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