This research work is based on population census and revenue allocation formular in Oyo east local government area of Oyo state. In the project the historical development of census, that is during the colonial period and after independence period. Also the problems of population census in Nigeria which was majorly that of inaccurate data of the population of the country was singled out as causing impediments to planning to the government. Questionnaire was used in the process to gather information from the people furthermore; discussion of findings was used to explain the opinion of the people. The research recommended that government should provided different types of educative programme in enlighten the people, and government should see that all data should be registered or government should introduce the system of electronic device in future population exercises.
- BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Population according to advance learner dictionary means the total of people living in a particular geographical area over a period of time. And for effective distribution of revenue, the government will know the total population of each religion before distribution of revenue.
The census of 1952/1953 degenerated into crises because of wrong estimation, however the 1962/1963 census after independent became a political issue as a result of vote that some of them received during the election the result of 1963 was considered unreliable owing to double counting over-estimation of figure. So also the 1973 census was rejected as a result of double counting 1991 census lead to ethnic crises. The 2006 population census is still been released in piece meal for the fear of ethnic tension. Through official population figure shall be rejected by some states as Lagos which claimed that the figure quoted for it was far below the population of Lagos state.
For any government to foster good administration population census is needed in a crucial program conducted to determine the total number of people living in a particular country so that the resources will satisfy the need of populace. Since the political and economic development of the country base on the total number of country. A census of a population is the whole process of collecting, compiling and publishing demographic economic and social data pertaining to the specified time. According to (Shryeek and Sicegel 1973); It is a plan designed to measure and regulate the capital income which shows that improvement of economic social infrastructural for the purpose of political stability and good government.
Population according to advance learner dictionary meaning the total of people living in a particular geographical area over a period of time. And for effective distribution of revenue, the government will know the total population of each religion before distribution of revenue.
Generally speaking, it can be said that Nigeria is going through a demographic transition phase of a rising birth rate and declining death rate, leading to a potentially high rate of population growth per capital income level is by world standard still low. The youth dependency ratio is quite high so is the rate urbanization. But how many Nigerian are there? Nobody knows for certain because accurate census data are not available. We believe that the development of a coordinated systematic and responsive data base is essential if the government is to make informed decision for policy and planning to assess the impact to those decisions and to operate its programs effectively.
Infact, the needs for the information available for a census extend beyond the federal government to state and local government. Each one needs reliable timely and comparable data and analysis which describe the ethnic composition, literacy levels, number of children ever born, number of children living, occupation, sex, age, presence and durability and so on. The lack of such statistics severely limits government capacity to plan, manage and evaluate the tremendous investment in its economic and social programs.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
This study attempt to investigate into the problem of population census revenue allocation in Nigeria. The following issues therefore, are of importance to the problem of using population as a factor in revenue allocation in Nigeria.
- Government did not know the total population of the country due to inaccurate census data.
- Lack of expertise; most of the enumerator is not expert in the process due to Nepotism and favouralism by our government. The distribution between the Muslim (North) and Christian (South) have often sparked controversy in Nigeria. Our leaders are corrupt which cause problem to revenue allocation.
- They embezzle our money also the problem of people retuning to their home town during census exercise which increase the population of where they are living and the day they are spending for the census exercise.
- The National Population Commissions are not conducting the programme according to the provision of the constitution.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the prospect and problem of population census in revenue allocation in Nigeria.
- The study internal to highlights various problems encountered during the period of population census and its effects on Nigeria economy.
- The study internal to examine the relationship existing between the problem and prospect of population census and revenue distribution in Nigeria.
- Finally the advantage of population census will equally be analyzed of the various level of government in the country.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
- The main significance of carrying out this research work is to give possible solution to the problem of revenue distribution in the country.
- It will serve as a means to enlighten our community.
- To conduct accurate population to know the actual numbers of citizens in Nigeria
- To use population census figures as determining factor of power distribution.
- That the country need accurate census so that the revenue will be distributed accordingly.
- The study will also serve as guide for other research who may intend to write further on this topic.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
For effective study of this research work, the following questions are raised as a guide for the study.
- Does government conduct credible and accurate population census in Nigeria?
- Is the timing of census exercise appropriate for data collection?
- Is there any congruence between accurate population census and political stability?
- Does government provide logistics for the conduct of the population census?
1.6 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
In the process of carryout this research financial constraint limit the study to Oyo East local government environs, instead of carrying out the project in many area. Another factor that limit the extent of the project to Oyo East environs is time limitation will not allow the going to so many place to collect data.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
For the purpose of this research work, the following terms are the most frequently used works.
Census:- Is the process of collecting, compiling and publishing demographic economic and social data pertaining to a specified time to all person in a country. Process of counting of people, house to house, knows the total population in the country.
Revenue:- Money that government receives from taxes. Money that government share between the state and local level.
Population:- Is the total number of people living in a particular geographical area over a period of time.
Data:- Is the collection of number, characteristics, images the country fact or information especially when examined, gathering of information.
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