TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page —————————————————————————————- I
Approval page ———————————————————————————– II
Dedication —————————————————————————————- III
Acknowledgement —————————————————————————— IV
Table of contents ——————————————————————————– V
List of tables ————————————————————————————- VII
List of figures ———————————————————————————— IX
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the study ————————————————————— 1
1.2 Statement of the problem ————————————————————– 4
1.3 Research Questions ——————————————————————— 6
1.4 Objectives of the study —————————————————————– 6
1.5 Significance of the study ————————————————————— 7
1.6 Definition of Terms ——————————————————————— 8
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Conceptual Issues ——————————————————————— 10
2.2 Review of empirical literature —————————————————— 15
2.3 Review of Theories ——————————————————————– 17
2.4 Theoretical Framework —————————————————————- 19
2.5 Study Hypothesis ———————————————————————– 20
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.1 Study Design —————————————————————————- 21
3.2 Area of Study ————————————————————————— 21
3.3 Population of the Study —————————————————————– 21
3.4 Sample Size ——————————————————————————- 21
3.5 Sample Techniques ——————————————————————— 22
3.6 Instrument for Data Collection ——————————————————– 22
3.7 Administration of Instruments ——————————————————— 22
3.8 Methods of Data Analysis ————————————————————– 23
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1 Introduction ——————————————————————————– 24
4.2 Major issues of the research ————————————————————- 36
4.3 Test of Hypotheses ———————————————————————– 55
4.4 Discussion of Findings ——————————————————————- 58
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY OF FINDINGD, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Summary of findings ———————————————————————– 62
5.2 Conclusion ———————————————————————————– 63
5.3 Recommendation —————————————————————————- 64
References ——————————————————————————————— 66
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: Demographic characteristic of the respondents —————————— 24
Table 2: Respondents views on socio economic factors that hinder rural development
Table 3: Respondents views on socio cultural factors that hinder rural development – 28
Table 4: Respondents views on people‟s reaction to rural development —————- 30
Table 5: Respondents views on whether rural dwellers help in facilitating rural
Development ———————————————————————— 31
Table 6: Table 6: Respondents views on whether the youths have important role to play in
rural development. ———————————————————————— 35
Table 7: Distribution of respondents by sex and factors militating against rural
Development ————————————————————————- 37
Table 8: Distribution of respondents by age and factors militating against rural development
Table 9: Distribution of respondents by level of education and factors militating against rural
Development ——————————————————————————– 39
Table 10: Distribution of respondents by level of marital status and factors militating against rural development ————————————————————————– 40
Table 11: Distribution of respondents by level of occupation and factors militating against rural development ——————————————————————————— 41
Table 12: Distribution of respondents by occupation and factors militating against rural development ———————————————————————————- 42
Table 13: Distribution of respondents by religion and factors militating against rural development ——————————————————————————— 43
Table 14: Distribution of respondents by age and factors militating against rural development
Table 15: Distribution of respondents by sex and factors militating against rural development
Table 16: Distribution of respondents by level of education and factors militating against rural development ——————————————————————————— 58
LIST OF FIGURES
Fig 1: Respondent‟s views on socio-economic factors that hinder development ———— 27
Fig 2: Respondent‟s views on socio-cultural factors that hinder development ————– 29
Fig 3: Respondent‟s views on whether improper rural development has any consequence- 32
Fig 4: Respondent‟s views on whether government has made any effort to stopping the problems
affecting rural development ———————————————————————– 33
Fig 5: Respondent‟s views on efforts of the government in stopping the problems affecting
rural development ————————————————————————— 34
Fig 6: Respondent‟s views on agencies that can be used to eradicate the problems affecting rural development —————————————————————————– 35
Fig 7: Distribution of respondents by sex and efforts made by the government to stopping problems affecting rural development —————————————————— 44
Fig 8: Distribution of respondents by age and efforts made by the government to stopping
problems affecting rural development —————————————————– 45
Fig 9: Distribution of respondents by marital status and efforts made by the government to stopping problems affecting rural development —————————————— 46
Fig 10: Distribution of respondents by level of education and efforts made by the government to stopping problems affecting rural development ————————————— 47
Fig 11: Distribution of respondents by occupation and efforts made by the government
to stopping problems affecting rural development ————————————– 48
Fig 12: Distribution of respondents by religious affiliation and efforts made by the
government to stopping problems affecting rural development ——————— 49
Fig 13: Distribution of respondents by sex and measures that can be used to eradicate
problems affecting rural development ———————————————— 50
Fig 14: Distribution of respondents by age and measures that can be used to eradicate
problems affecting rural development ———————————————– 51
Fig 15: Distribution of respondents by occupation and measures that can be used to
eradicate problems affecting rural development ———————————– 52
Fig 16: Distribution of respondents by marital status and measures that can be used to
eradicate problems affecting rural development ———————————– 53
Fig 17: Distribution of respondents by level of education and measures that can be used
to eradicate problems affecting rural development ——————————— 54
Fig 18: Distribution of respondents by religious affiliation and measures that can be used
to eradicate problems affecting rural development ——————————— 55
Over the years, Ideato North Local Government Area of Imo state has been experiencing a slow rate of development in the area. Based on this therefore, this work was designed toinvestigate the socio-economic and cultural factors militating against rural development in Ideato North Local Government Area. Two hundred respondents were randomly selected and used. Questionnaire was the instrument used for data collection. The data collected were analysed using SPSS and chi-square, tables, charts and percentages were used to present the results. Several findings were made as regards socio-economic and cultural factors militating against rural development in Ideato North LGA. One major factor is that Ideato people are facing total neglect from the government which goes a long way in affecting their development negatively. Secondly, cultural belief system of the people also affects their development. Thirdly, inadequate planning of developmental projects caused by lack of collaborative efforts of the government and the youths also hinder development in Ideato North LGA. Finally it was recommended that government should focus more attention in the development of rural areas in order not to allow them fell neglected and rejected. Rural people should learn to welcome and harness development despite their cultural belief system and there should be a collaborative effort of the government and the people, more especially the youths in planning and implementation of rural development projects.
1.1 Background to the Study
In Nigeria, the rural areas are not progressing in line with urban areas or metropolitan states in term having sustainable development like good road, electricity, good telecommunication, transportation, good water supply, standard market and health centres, improved housing as well as improved agricultural and storage facilities that would help in sustaining the rural masses. McKnight (1995) defined the term rural development as the overall development of rural areas to improve the quality of life of the rural people. According to Ihumodu (2003), rural development is the process of economic and social progress aimed at eradicating poverty among rural populace through provision of life and satisfying the basic needs of the people. Eradicating poverty among rural people demands appropriate skill. Rural people are endowed with quantum of knowledge and traditional skills, but at their primitive levels, that needs development to fit in properly with the modern trends of thing (Stall & Stoecker, 1998). This can be achieved through capacity building programmes. Capacity building is the process of developing skill, ability and faculties individually and collectively, that is vital in comprehending rural development and its roles in ameliorating rural poverty, ignorance, low human skill and literacy (Castelloe, 2002). All these are done to sustain the development of rural setting. Sustainable development vector (i.e. elements of desirable social objectives or attributes which societies seek to achieve through conserving natural resources (Pearce & Barbier, 1999).
Most rural societies are not able to achieve development because they lack the basic resources that would bring development or they are not able to harness and utilize the
existing resources that would enable them develop their society (Robinovitch, 1994). In Nigeria, this has been serious social issue in recent time.
Socioeconomically, infrastructure and basic amenities like good road, portable water supply, electricity, health centres, markets, transportation, telecommunication, sports centers etc. affect development. This is true because, when all these essential things are lacking, development can hardly come or occur. Other important factors are illiteracy, ignorance and poverty. On the other hand, government neglect can also affect developmental process that will take place in the rural areas.
Culturally, belief system of the rural people bridge development, for example, they find it difficult to release a particularland for development due to the belief that it is on that land sacrifices are being made for the gods of their land, secondly they find it difficult to release a particular land for development to avoid the destruction of their aesthetic values like trees and other things that bring about the beauty of their area. Another cultural factor is on land tenure system (ownership of land). This implies that some land owners in the rural areas do not like releasing or letting go of their land for building of factories, schools, market, churches, health centres etc. by the government or even private individuals who are capable of doing so. By so doing, development is swept under the carpet. Fear of terror and labelling are another vital cultural factor which affect development, for example, an individual who is financially capable can withdraw his intention to develop a particular rural area due to the fear of getting him killed by armed robber and evil men or being labelled a fraudster and also a ritualist.
Rural development is a multidimensional and comprehensive concept; it encompasses the development of agriculture and allied activities, village and cottage industries and crafts, socio-economic infrastructure, community services and facilities and above all, human
resources in rural areas. As a phenomenon, rural development is the end result of interactions between various physical, technological, economic, socio-cultural and institutional factors (Isife, 1998). According to Igbokwe (2000), rural development is a strategy designed to improve the economic and social wellbeing of a specific group of people, i.e., the rural poor. As a discipline, it is multi- disciplinary in nature, representing an intersection of agriculture, social, behavioural, engineering and management sciences (Kata Singh, 1999). Problems of rural areas could come as a result of the already stated factors, most importantly, on the area of deliberate neglect of the rural areas by the government. According to Prelleltensky (2004), rural development problems come as a result of governmental deliberate neglect or inability of the rural community to welcome development due to their cultural belief system etc. According to rural development strategies 2002, through rural development strategies, efforts of the people and that of the government are brought together to improve the economic social and cultural conditions of the rural areas, so as to integrate them into the life of the nation and allow them to enable their people contribute more to national growth. Falcoya, (1984) on the other hand stated that rural development strategies created an avenue for rural people to organize themselves for aplanning actions, define their common individual plans to meet the needs of the community and solve their problems, execute these plans with maximum reliance upon community resources and supplement these resources when necessary with services and materials from government and non-governmental agencies outside their communities.
In addition, the issues concerning rural development should be government involved as well as rural dwellers involved so as to achieve a better solution to rural problems. That is to say that in order to achieve a better rural development in Ideato LGA, government and the rural people should integrate their efforts together. The study therefore tries looking into the
socio-economic and cultural factors militating against development in Ideato Local Government Area of Imo State.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The issue of rural development is very challenging, considering that more than 70 percent of the population live in the rural areas, where they cultivate the soil to make a living. Looking at this poverty level it thereforebecomes a social problem thatdemands urgent solution. One major factoraffecting rural development is government neglect or government not showing concern towards rural development. According to Nwankpa (2001), government should play pivotal role to making sure that development occur in the rural setting. Another important factor is on lack of basic infrastructure and basic amenities needed for development such as transportation, good roads, electricity, good school, portable water, health centres, markets, telecommunication, churches, recreational centres etc. When all these infrastructures and basic amenities are not available in a particular rural area, development finds it difficult to occur. Illiteracy, ignorance, and poverty serve as another important factor militating against rural development in Ideato rural community, Illiteracy, poverty and ignorance make or flop the developmental process in the rural areas, so making them to move backward (Edeh, 2003). Rural dispute is another factor militating against rural development. This implies that when dispute comes between two communities due to land, government who has planned bringing development can decide to withdraw it till the dispute or conflict is settled. Land tenure system as well as inability of the rural people to harnessing the available resources contributes to the backwardness of the rural areas, especially rural, Ideato.
Furthermore, cultural beliefs of the people in the rural areas affect the development that will come therein, for example some rural areas always find it difficult to give government land for development due to the fact that the land is where sacrifices are mad for
the gods of their land. Another fear they have is the destruction of theiraesthetic values by the government while the development projects are going on. Some individuals due to their selfish interest, find it difficult to dispose their land to the government for them to build structures like hospitals, schools, churches, recreational centres etc. According to Iyiogwe (2005), in his work on economic theory says land is free gift of nature, such as land surface, soil, rivers, mountains, forest, mineral deposits etc. Okorji (2005) restated that land is therefore nature’s aid to production. Another cultural factor is the fear of terror and labelling. some private individuals avoid helping people in some developmental structures in the rural area in order not to get them killed or labelled as criminals, fraudsters or as ritualists by the rural people.
More so, the problem of gender segregation is another crucial factor to be considered while discussing on the cultural factor militating against rural development. The reason is that sometimes women in the rural areas are not allowed to contribute in the issues concerning rural or community development. By so doing, the ideas of development becomes one sided which in turn affects the developmental processes. Women should be allowed to contribute in the developmental issues, whether political, economic, social and cultural. (Egbule, 2006)
Based on statistics, 65 per cent of the lands in the rural areas are undeveloped due to total dominance by the owners. According to Ikpeama (2004), land is a free gift of nature, and development of any kind should be done on it, in as much as it will change the living standard of the people. 85 per cent of our rural dwellers are not living in comfortable homes, while 95 per cent of them are poor (Hossian, 2005). According to agricultural organization of the United Nations (2005), 95 per cent of the rural farmers cannot boast of using modern farming implements in theiragriculture. All these hindrances have continued to put the rural communities under a shackle of underdevelopment, in spite of the abundant human talents there in. this unavailability of basic economic infrastructure in the rural communities, hinders
their potentials, especially being unable to generate enough for themselves and contribute to the nation’s economic growth. Rural dwellers should be encouraged in their agricultural endeavours, which will in turn help in the nation’s economic building (Preben Kaarshelin, 1991). When all these socio-economic and cultural factors that affect rural development are put in place, there will be a rapid rural development, especially in Ideato Local Government Area of Imo State.
1.3 Research Questions
The following research questions will guide the study
1. What are the socio-economic factors that hinder rural development in Ideato
Local Government Area?
2. What are the cultural factors that hinder rural development in Ideato LGA?
3. What are the reactions of people to development in Ideato LGA?
4. To what extent have rural dwellers helped in facilitating rural development in
5. What are the consequences of improper rural development in Ideato LGA?
1.4 Objectives of the Study
The main objective of this study is to investigate on the socio-economic and cultural factors militating against rural development in Ideato Local Government Area of Imo State. Its specific objectives are therefore as follows:
1. To evaluate the socio-economic factors that hinder rural development in Ideato
2. To investigates the cultural factors that hinder rural development in Ideato LGA.
3. To ascertain the reactions of people to rural development in Ideato LGA.
4. To examine the extent rural dwellers have helped in facilitating rural development in
5. To ascertain the consequences of improper rural development in Ideato LGA.
1.5 Significance of the Study
The significance of this study tends to treat both the theoretical and practical importance. Theoretically, this study will add to the already existing knowledge of the socio-economic and cultural factors militating against rural development in Ideato LGA. The study was written in order to know the problems of the rural people and at the same time proffer solutions to them. More so, the study will be a guide to future researchers in their research in knowing the socio-economic factors militating against rural development, and look for means of tackling those problems.
Practically, this research work will enable the rural dwellers to know the importance of harnessing the available rich natural resources in their localities in order to bring about development in their areas. This can be done by making sure that the various natural resources in the rural areas are well managed, through their efforts and efforts of the government. This study will also make them to put in agenda the issues concerning rural development, more especially on the areas of infrastructures, such as good roads, electricity, portable water, health centres, and transportation.
1.6 Definition of Terms
For more understanding of this research work, the researcher has decided to define some of the terms which would be frequently used for easy understanding.
Community : Okoh (1989), defined community in line with this study as group of people living in one geographical area and sharing the basic condition of common life. Example, family, a village, town or city, a tribe, among others.
Community development: Thus simply means all the strategies aimed at promoting the socio-economic status of the rural communities. It aimed at motivating the rural dwellers to utilize their full potentials in attempt to embark on the project that will help better their lots. United Nations in line with this study defined community development as including the effort of the government united with that of the people themselves. Thus, the efforts of the people themselves are united with that of the governmental authorities to improve the economic and social well being of people to enable them to contribute fully in national progress.
Development: The definition of development by Walter Rodney (1972) was used in order to explain this term. Development according to him implies increased skill and capacity, greater freedom, creativity, self-discipline, responsibility and increase in material wellbeing.
Rural: Rural areas are characterized by their depleted workforce, their rudimentary and inefficient mode of production, their general lack of basic infrastructure and social amenities, such as portable water, all season access road, electricity, schools, medical facilities, market, low level of health care delivery, nutrition, hygiene, education and social awareness.
Rural development: According to Ihumodu (2003), rural development is the process of economic and social progress aimed at eradicating poverty through the provision of employment, improvement in the quality of life and satisfying the basic needs of the people.
Rural dwellers: These are group of individual or persons living in the rural communities. These group of persons are not urbanized and typically, much of their land is devoted to agriculture.
Rural Geographical Area: This is a mapped out area of the earth’s physical surface, in which rural people live.
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