Home PARASITOLOGY AND ENTOMOLOGY PROJECT TOPICS AND MATERIALS THE CONTAMINATION OF SACHET AND BOTTLED WATER WITH PROTOZOAN PARASITES IN ONITSHA SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ANAMBRA STATE.

THE CONTAMINATION OF SACHET AND BOTTLED WATER WITH PROTOZOAN PARASITES IN ONITSHA SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ANAMBRA STATE.

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    ABSTRACT

    The study investigated the presence of water-borne protozoan parasites
    in various packaged water samples in Onitsha South L.G.A., Anambra
    State between March and July 2009. G. lamblia and E. histolytica were
    identified using the wet mount technique and modified zeihl-neelson
    staining technique was used to identify C. parvum. A total of 324 samples
    were examined, 100 bottled water and 224 sachet water from 11 different
    brands. The frequency and percentage of sachet water found
    contaminated were 17 (7.59%) while bottled water were 5 (5%). G.
    lamblia was the commonest parasitic protozoa isolated 11 (3.4%) while C.
    parvum was the least, 4 (1.23%). The factors influencing the
    contamination rate of the packaged water were determined but none of
    these factors were statistically significant using chi-square analysis
    (P<0.05). The presence of these protozoan parasites in packaged water
    depends on improper processing and purification procedures, unhygienic
    handling after production, small size of the pathogens which enable them
    escape filtration, their resistance to physical water treatment agents and
    disinfectants, poor storage facilities as well as proximity of the water point
    to contamination sources.

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Title page ………. ………. ………. ………. i Certification ………. ………. ………. ………. ii Dedication ………. ………. ………. ………. iii Acknowledgement …….. ………. ………. ………. iv List of tables ………. ………. ………. ………. v List of figures ………. ………. ………. ………. vi Table of Contents …….. ………. ………. ………. vii Abstract ……….. ………. ………. ………. ix

    CHAPTER ONE

    1.0 Introduction ………. ………. ………. 1 1.1 Objectives ………. ………. ………. 6

    CHAPTER TWO
    2.0 Literature Review……….. ………. ………. 8

    2.1 Some of the water-borne protozoan parasites 9 2.1.1 Cryptosporidium parvum ………. ………. 9 2.1.2 Giardia lamblia ………. ………. ………. 18 2.1.3 Entamoeba histolytica ………. ………. 27

    2.2 Factors that affect the contamination rate of drinking water 34 2.2.1 Water source ………. ………. ………. 34 2.2.2 The extent of treatment processes of water 36 2.2.3 Sanitary Habits ………. ………. 41

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    CHAPTER THREE

    3.0 Materials and methods ………. ………. 45 3.1 Study Area ………. ………. ………. 45 3.2 Water sampling ………. ………. ………. 48 3.3 Examination of sachet and bottled water ………. 49 3.3.1 Physical examination ………. ………. 49 3.3.2 Microscopic examination ………. ………. 50

    CHAPTER FOUR

    4.0 Result ………. ………. ………. 52

    CHAPTER FIVE

    5.0 Discussion ………. ………. ……….. 60 5.1 Contribution …….. ………. ……….. 71 5.2 Recommendation ………. ……….. 72 5.3 Conclusion …….. ………. ……….. 73

    REFERENCES ……….. ………. ……….. 75

    APPENDIX ……….. ………. ………. 100

    CHAPTER ONE

    INTRODUCTION

    Generally, humans drink water that contains pathogens or contain
    unacceptable levels of dissolved contaminants. Such waters are not
    potable water and drinking or using them in cooking leads to wide
    spread of acute and chronic illness. However, they are key determinants
    of many microbial diseases with serious complications in immuno
    competent and immuno-compromised individuals (Steiner et al., 1997).

    Water must have some sufficient quality to serve as drinking water. A
    potable water supply is one which is drinkable. Potable water also is
    treated water that meets that quality standard for human consumption
    and other uses (Agha, 2008). It may be packaged or unpackaged as the
    case may be. Most table water today includes treated water that is
    packaged in plastic bottles or sachets, popularly known as “pure water”.

    The introduction of sachet and bottled water in Nigeria was to provide
    safe, hygienic and affordable instant drinking water to the public and
    curb the magnitude of water related infection in the country. Although
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    this is a laudable idea, current trends seem to suggest that sachet
    drinking water could be a route of the transmission of enteric pathogen
    (Kwakye Nuako, 2007). This does not necessarily mean that bottled
    water is 100% free from any pathogen. Recent investigation conducted
    on the safety of drinking water in Lagos, Nigeria has shown that sachet
    water especially from hawkers is not of good microbiological quality
    (Dada, 2009). This observation was based on studies carried out on
    water samples to ascertain the bacteriological quality of the water in
    sachets, to identify contributory factors that determine the fate of
    packaged water product as it moves from catchments to consumer and
    to highly unharnessed opportunities for policy improvements that would
    allow for sustained and improved regulation of the sachet water industry.
    Also, investigation conducted on the safety of drinking water in Ghana
    has shown that bottled water on the Ghanaian market is of good
    microbiological quality while the quality of some factory bagged sachet
    and hand-tied polythene-bagged drinking water was noted to be doubtful
    (Obiri-Danso, 2003).

    Lack of information on pathogenic organisms associated with drinking
    water in our community creates some uncertainties in our understanding
    of overall quality of drinking water (Kwakye Nuako, 2007). According to
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    Coker, 2004 he observed that in Lagos State many people depend on
    water vendors to whom they pay heavily for provision of water to meet
    daily domestic needs. People tend to consume sachet and bottled
    drinking water because of its instant availability to quench appetite.
    However, the high dependence of people on sachet water due to its low
    price and instant availability to quench appetite and its low cost of
    production on the side of the manufacturers brought about increase of
    different brands of sachet water produced and marketed in Nigeria.

    It is necessary to note that Nigeria as a country is challenged not only on
    food stuff. However, the country is also facing drinking water scarcity, a
    situation that has been identified for years. It is also important to note
    that due to scarcity of water in most places, drinking water is got from
    doubtful source which is major potential sources of water-borne
    diseases. This is a great concern to many sectors in this present
    administration as they try to implement strategies to meet the health
    millennium development goals (MDGS) in 2015”, a former minister of
    health said (Agha, 2008).

    Protozoan organisms are ubiquitous and could be found in various
    systems including water bodies common examples are Cryptosporidium
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    parvum, Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, Microsporidia spp and
    Cyclospora cayelenensis (Steiner et al, 1997, Maza et al 1997,
    Koneman et al, 1992). The presence of these organisms in sources of
    drinking water is partly due to four reasons. Firstly, these organisms are
    indigenous pathogens found in most domestic animals; secondly the
    degree of environmental contamination with their infective stages;
    thirdly, their resistance to water purification process and finally
    unhygienic handling of drinking water (Meisel et al., 1776; Le Chevallier
    et al., 1991).

    In developing countries, water–borne gastrointestinal parasitic
    pathogens such as Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lambia and
    Entamoeba histolytica are frequently associated with mobidity,
    particularly in children (Bilal, 2003). These parasites are most common
    cause of infection world wide (Pickering et al., 1984; Curry and Smith
    1998; Tanyuksel et al., 2001). In developed nations, outbreaks of E.
    histolytica infections have been caused by sewage contaminated water
    supplies (Barwick et al., 1999). In Nigeria, an overall prevalence of
    intestinal parasite (16%) was reported (Alakpa et al, 2002). However,
    the most frequent intestinal parasite was Cryptosporidium parvum and
    the least was Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica. In the study to
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    investigate the episode of giardiasis among the inhabitant of Abagana,
    Nigeria, its detection in the natural water bodies and its relationship with
    environmental factor, the overall prevalence of giadiasis among the
    inhabitants was 18.5% (Obiukwu et al, 2008). A four year study on the
    prevalence of blood and gastrointestinal parasites of man on (18) L.G.A
    of Edo State, Nigeria revealed 4% and 3% for E. histolytica and Giardia
    lamblia respectively (Mordi et al, 2007). Mbanugo et al (2005) in a study
    conducted to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium parvum
    infections among children aged 0 – 15 years in Awka, metropolis,
    Anambra State, Nigeria detected 14% of the children examined positive.

    The Federal Ministry of Health in 2007 approved the Nigerian standard
    for drinking water quality (NSDWQ) – NIS 554, 2007 in an attempt to
    ensure that water meant for drinking meet the minimum quality standard
    as recommended. The purposes are to safeguard the public from the
    hazards of water pollution and contamination (Agha, 2008).

    The National Agency for Food and Drug Administration Control
    (NAFDAC) is mandated to enforce compliance with internationally
    defined drinking water guidelines, but regulation of the packaged water
    industry aimed at a good assurance has remained a challenge to the
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    agency (C.A.M.O.N, 2007). NAFDAC regulations require full labeling to
    be informative and accurate (USDA, 2005). The minimum labeling
    requirements for regulated items involve a declaration of the products
    brand name that must appear in bold letters, a complete “location”
    address of the manufacturer and best use before expiring date, metric
    volume and most importantly NAFDAC registration number (Dada,
    2009).

    In order to clarify the quality of packaged drinking water, there is an
    urgent need for determination of parasites associated with drinking
    water in these sachet and bottled water.

    1.1 OBJECTIVES
    The major objective is to ascertain the parasitological quality of sachet
    and bottled water and to compare them.

    These are the specific objectives:
    — To investigate the presence of water-borne protozoan parasites in
    different brands of sachet and bottled water in Onitsha South L.G.A,
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    Anambra State Nigeria .such as Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia
    lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica.

    — To determine the factors influencing the contamination rate of
    drinking water such as points of purchase, toilet–facilities of the water
    packaging factory, source of raw water and its proximity to the
    contamination source, location of the factory producing the packaged
    water and sanitary habits of workers in packaged water producing
    factories.

    — To make appropriate recommendation aimed at regulating
    packaged water companies.

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